Phenices and Firebirds


Octobre 2012                       André J. Fabre      

 Myths and legends  on a mythical firebird can be found all over the world

Its most celebrated appearance was a firebird named Phoenix, the mythical bird that is periodically destroyed by flames to rise reborn from its own ashes

In fact, there are several meanings for the word, Phoenix : the mythical fire bird from Egypt, heraldic figure stressing the Christian myth of medieval times, and, swarming from its nest, many other legends from Orient, Balkans and Russia and eve Venice.



Semis de roses et Phénix, mosaïque de sol (détail), maison de l'Atrium à Antioche, Ve siècle

Originally, the phoenix was identified by the Egyptians as a stork or heron-like bird called a benu, known from the Book of the Dead and other Egyptian texts as one of the sacred symbols of worship at Heliopolis, closely associated with the rising sun and the Egyptian sun-god Ra. The winged sun disk symbol of ancient Egypt and the Assyrians, the Babylonians and the Hittites was inspired by the Phoenix bird "Bird of the Sun".

The Greeks identified it with their own word phoenix, meaning the color purple-red or crimson (cf. Phoenicia).

They and the Romans subsequently pictured the bird more like a peacock or an eagle and, on late chronology, the myth of firebird

 HERODOTUS (484-425 BC) [1]

 "They have also another sacred bird called the phoenix which I myself have never seen, except in pictures. Indeed it is a great rarity, even in Egypt, only coming there (according to the accounts of the people of Heliopolis) once in five hundred years, when the old phoenix dies. Its size and appearance, if it is like the pictures, are as follow:—The plumage is partly red, partly golden, while the general make and size are almost exactly that of the eagle.

They tell a story of what this bird does, which does not seem to me to be credible: that he comes all the way from Arabia, and brings the parent bird, all plastered over with myrrh, to the temple of the Sun, and there buries the body.

In order to bring him, they say, he first forms a ball of myrrh as big as he finds that he can carry; then he hollows out the ball, and puts his parent inside, after which he covers over the opening with fresh myrrh, and the ball is then of exactly the same weight as at first; so he brings it to Egypt, plastered over as I have said, and deposits it in the temple of the Sun."

 OVID (43 BC-17 AD) [2]

            [391] "Now these I named derive their origin from other living forms. There is one bird which reproduces and renews itself: the Assyrians gave this bird his name—the Phoenix. He does not live either on grain or herbs, but only on small drops of frankincense and juices of amomum. When this bird completes a full five centuries of life straightway with talons and with shining beak he builds a nest among palm branches, where they join to form the palm tree's waving top. As soon as he has strewn in this new nest the cassia bark and ears of sweet spikenard, and some bruised cinnamon with yellow myrrh, he lies down on it and refuses life among those dreamful odors.—And they say that from the body of the dying bird is reproduced a little Phoenix which is destined to live just as many years. When time has given to him sufficient strength and he is able to sustain the weight, he lifts the nest up from the lofty tree and dutifully carries from that place his cradle and the parent's sepulchre. As soon as he has reached through yielding air the city of Hyperion, he will lay the burden just before the sacred doors within the temple of Hyperion."

[PLINY THE ELDER (23-79 AD)[3]

 "By report he is as big as an eagle: for color, as yellow and bright as gold; (namely, all about the neck;) the rest of the body a deep red purple: the tail azure blew, intermingled with feathers among, of rose carnation color: and the head bravely adorned with a crest and panache finely wrought; having a tuft and plume thereupon, fair and goodly to be seen. "[4]

“Here reported, that never man was known to see him feeding : that in Arabia he is held a sacred bird, dedicated unto the Sun: that he lives 660 years: and when he grows old, and begins to decay, he builds himself a nest with the twigs and branches of the Cannel or Cinnamon, and Frankincense trees: and when he has filled it with all sort of sweet aromatic spices, yields up his life thereupon.” [5]

“…of his bones & marrow there breeds at first as it were a little worm: which afterwards proves to bee a pretty bird.”(The History of Nature or The Naturall History Of the Phoenix) [6]

 Much later arrives the myth of a Phoenix consuming himself on a stake, as a memory for Roman practices.:

 TACITUS Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca. 56 – ca. 117)[7]

 Tacitus (Ann. vi. 28) says that the young bird lays his father on the altar in the city of the sun, or burns him there; but the most familiar form of the legend is that in the Physiologus, where the phoenix is described as an Indian bird which subsists on air for Soo years, after which, lading his wings with spices, he flies to Heliopolis, enters the temple there, and is burned to ashes on the altar. Next day the young phoenix is already feathered; on the third day his pinions are full grown, he salutes the priest and flies away. The period at which the phoenix reappears is very variously stated, some authors giving as much as 1461 or even 7006 years, but 500 years is the period usually named; and Tacitus tells us that the bird was said to have appeared first under Sesostris (Senwosri), then under Amasis (Ahmosi) under Ptolemy III., and once again in A.D. 34, after an interval so short that the genuineness of the last phoenix was suspected. The phoenix that was shown at Rome in the year of the secular games (A.D. 47) was universally admitted to be an imposture.2 The form and variations of these stories characterize them as popular tales rather than official theology; but they evidently must have had points of attachment in the mystic religion of Egypt, and indeed both Horapollon and Tacitus speak of the phoenix as a symbol of the sun.

 During th 1st century and after comes the story of a Phoenix consuming itself on a pyre to regenerated from its ashes.

 Marcus Valerius Martialis (Martial) (38-102 AD) [8]

To Vulcan, on the restoration of thecity after being partially destroyed by fire.

As the flames renew the nest of the Assyrian phoenix, when ever the solitary bird has lived through its ten centuries so Rome, renewed, has put off her former old age, and has herself assumed the looks of her guardian. Forget at length, I beseech you, Vulcan, your cause of complaint against us,[9]and spare us: we are, it is true, descendants of Mars, but we are also descendants of Venus. Spare us, mighty lord; so may your sprightly consort pardon the nets[10] forged at Lemnos,and resign herself to love you.

.Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (Lucan) (39-65 AD)[11]

"Then copious poisons from the moon distils / Mixed with all monstrous things which Nature's pangs / Bring to untimely birth ... nor ashes fail / Snatched from an altar where the Phoenix died".

 Publius Papinius Statius  (Stace) (40-96)[12]

"How the Phoenix, still alive, builds the  pyre on which it will be consumed "


 One inspiration that has been suggested for the Egyptian phoenix is the flamingo of East Africa. This bright pink or white bird nests on salt flats that are too hot for its eggs or chicks to survive; it builds a mound several inches tall and large enough to support its egg, which it lays in that marginally cooler location. The convection currents around these mounds resembles the turbulence of a flame. In zoology, flamingos are part of the family Phoenicopteridae, from the generic name Phoenicopterus or "phoenix-winged.

 The typical flamingo diet consists of diatoms, seeds, blue-green alage, crustaceans, and mollusks they filter out of the water. Using their long legs and partially webbed feet, flamingos will stamp on the muddy bottom of lagoons to mix the food particles with the water. Different species of flamingo have slightly different shaped bills; the different shapes helping it obtain slightly different types of food. Flamingos drink fresh water.

Flamingos use their large beaks to filter small food items from the water. A flamingo lowers its head into the water, upside-down. It moves its head from side to side, collecting the food/water mixture. The spiny, piston-like tongue acts to pump the water mixture past the toothlike ridges on the outside of the beak and the lamellae, or finger-like projections, inside the beak. The lamellae act as strainers to remove the food particles from the water.

Flamingos live in large groups all year long called colonies. Tens of thousands of flamingos can live in one colony! Within a colony, flamingos breed in pairs. Every pair of flamingos does not breed every year, however. Breeding

Flamingos are able to reproduce by the age of about six. There is no specific season associated with breeding, but it seems to be correlated with rain. Nest building may depend on rainfall and its effect on food supply.

When they are ready to lay their breed, birds will form pairs. Within the whole colony, groups of birds will be engaged in courtship displays -, a predictable sequence of displays including marching and head turning, calling and preening. Several hundred to several thousand flamingos are all doing the same behaviors at the same time. This helps to synchronize breeding within the colony, so that most of the birds are laying eggs or raising young at the same time.

Every flamingo does not nest every year. When they do nest, they typically lay one large, white egg. The nest is built of mud, small stones, and feathers on the ground and is in the shape of a volcano. Mounds can be as high as 30 cm (12 in.). It can take a pair of flamingos up to six weeks to build their nest. Both parents will take turns incubating the egg for 26 to 31 days.

Newly hatched chicks have gray or white down feathers, a straight red bill, and plump, swollen red or pink legs. In these large colonies, parents can recognize their own chicks by their vocalizations (voice). The parents will only care for their own chicks. When it is about 4 to 7 days old, the chick will fledge (leave the nest). All the fledglings from the colony and a few adult birds will group together, forming a crche. The crche is like a big nursery school for the young flamingos. Within about three years the chicks will turn from gray to pink.

 Now we know from the Book of the Dead, and other Egyptian texts, that a stork, heron or egret called the benu was one of the sacred symbols of the worship of Heliopolis and it is  clear that the benu was a symbol of the rising sun, whence it is represented as "self-generating" and called "the soul of Ra (the sun)," "the heart of the renewed Sun." All the mystic symbolism of the morning sun, especially in connexion with the doctrine of the future life, could thus be transferred to the benu, and the language of the hymns in which the Egyptians praised the luminary of dawn as he drew near 2


 Although descriptions (and life-span) vary, the Egyptian phoenix (Bennu bird) became popular in early Catholic art, literature and Catholic symbolism, as a symbol of Christ representing His resurrection, immortality, and life-after-death.


 Titus Flavius Clemens (Clement of Alexandria) (150_116 AD) [13]

One of the Early Catholic Church Fathers, Clement, related the following regarding the Phoenix : "Let us consider that wonderful sign [of the resurrection] which takes place in Eastern lands, that is, in Arabia and the countries round about. There is a certain bird which is called a phoenix. This is the only one of its kind, and lives five hundred years. And when the time of its dissolution draws near that it must die, it builds itself a nest of frankincense, and myrrh, and other spices, into which, when the time is fulfilled, it enters and dies. But as the flesh decays a certain kind of worm is produced, which, being nourished by the juices of the dead bird, brings forth feathers. Then, when it has acquired strength, it takes up that nest in which are the bones of its parent, and bearing these it passes from the land of Arabia into Egypt, to the city called Heliopolis. And, in open day, flying in the sight of all men, it places them on the altar of the sun, and having done this, hastens back to its former abode. The priests then inspect the registers of the dates, and find that it has returned exactly as the five hundredth year was completed".

Michael W. Holmes points out that early Christian writers justified their use of this myth because the word appears in Psalm 92:12 [LXX Psalm 91:13], but in that passage it actually refers to a palm tree, not a mythological bird.[3] At the heart of these interpretations is the proliferation of richly complementary meanings that turn upon three translations of the word chol -- as phoenix, palm tree, or sand -- in Job 29:18." [4]

 Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius  (240-320)[14]

Widely attributed to Lactantius although it shows no overt sign of Christianity, the poem The Phoenix (de Ave Phoenice) tells the story of the death and rebirth of that mythical bird. That poem in turn appears to have been the principal source for the famous Anglo-Saxon poem to which the modern title The Phoenix is given

 Isidore of Seville (560-636 AD)[15]

The phoenix is a bird of Arabia, which gets its name from its purple (phoeniceus) color; or because it is singular and unique in the world and the Arabs call singular and unique phoenix. It lives for 500 years or more. When it sees that it has grown old it builds a pyre for itself from spices and twigs, and facing the rays of the rising sun ignites a fire and fans it with its wings, and rises again from its own ashes.

 Hebraist interpretations

Some medieval Jewish commentators commented that the Hebrew word "Hol" given in the biblical book of Job ("...Then I said, I shall die in my nest, and I shall multiply my days as the sand[16]...") could be interpreted as an allusion to the Phoenix. In Jewish  folklore, it is said that the phoenix was the only animal not to join Adam in his banishment from the Garden of Eden


 Guillaume le Clerc  [13th century][17]

 (Bestiary): There is a bird named the phoenix, which dwells in India and is never found elsewhere. This bird is always alone and without companion, for its like cannot be found, and there is no other bird which resembles it in habits or appearance. At the end of five hundred years it feels that it has grown old, and loads itself with many rare and precious spices, and flies from the desert away to the city of Leopolis. There, by some sign or other, the coming of the bird is announced to a priest of that city, who causes fagots to be gathered and placed upon a beautiful altar, erected for the bird. And so, as I have said, the bird, laden with spices, comes to the altar, and smiting upon the hard stone with its beak, it causes the flame to leap forth and set fire to the wood and the spices. When the fire is burning brightly, the phoenix lays itself upon the altar and is burned to dust and ashes. Then comes the priest and finds the ashes piled up, and separating them softly he finds within a little worm, which gives forth an odor sweeter than that of roses or of any other flower. The next day and the next the priest comes again, and on the third day he finds that the worm has become a full-grown and full-fledged bird, which bows low before him and flies away, glad and joyous, nor returns again before five hundred years. 

Bartholomaeus Anglicus (1203-1272)[18]

:Phoenix is a bird, and there is but one of that kind in all the wide world. Therefore lewd men wonder thereof, and among the Arabs, there this bird is bred, he is called singular--alone. The philosopher speaketh of this bird and saith that phoenix is a bird without make, and liveth three hundred or five hundred years: when the which years are past, and he feeleth his own default and feebleness, he maketh a nest of right sweet-smelling sticks, that are full dry, and in summer when the western wind blows, the sticks and the nest are set on fire with burning heat of the sun, and burn strongly. Then this bird phoenix cometh willfully into the burning nest, and is there burnt to ashes among these burning sticks, and within three days a little worm is gendered of the ashes, and waxeth little and little, and taketh feathers and is shapen and turned to a bird. Ambrose saith the same in the Hexameron: Of the humours or ashes of phoenix ariseth a new bird and waxeth, and in space of time he is clothed with feathers and wings and restored into the kind of a bird, and is the most fairest bird that is, most like to the peacock in feathers, and loveth the wilderness, and gathereth his meat of clean grains and fruits. Alan speaketh of this bird and saith, that when the highest bishop Onyas builded a temple in the city of Heliopolis in Egypt, to the likeness of the temple in Jerusalem, on the first day of Easter, when he had gathered much sweet-smelling wood, and set it on fire upon the altar to offer sacrifice, to all men's sight such a bird came suddenly, and fell into the middle of the fire, and was burnt anon to ashes in the fire of the sacrifice, and the ashes abode there, and were busily kept and saved by the commandments of the priests, and within three days, of these ashes was bred a little worm, that took the shape of a bird at the last, and flew into the wilderness.

 Sir John Mandeville [14th century][19]

In Egypt is the city of Heliopolis, that is to say, the city of the Sun. In that city there is a temple, made round after the shape of the Temple of Jerusalem. The priests of that temple have all their writings, under the date of the fowl that is clept phoenix; and there is none but one in all the world. And he cometh to burn himself upon the altar of that temple at the end of five hundred year; for so long he liveth. And at the five hundred years' end, the priests array their altar honestly, and put thereupon spices and sulphur vif and other things that will burn lightly; and then the bird phoenix cometh and burneth himself to ashes. And the first day next after, men find in the ashes a worm; and the second day next after, men find a bird quick and perfect; and the third day next after, he flieth his way. And so there is no more birds of that kind in all the world, but it alone, and truly that is a great miracle of God. And men may well liken that bird unto God, because that there ne is no God but one; and also, that our Lord arose from death to life the third day. This bird men see often-time fly in those countries; and he is not mickle more than an eagle. And he hath a crest of feathers upon his head more great than the peacock hath; and is neck his yellow after colour of an oriel that is a stone well shining, and his beak is coloured blue as ind; and his wings be of purple colour, and his tail is barred overthwart with green and yellow and red. And he is a full fair bird to look upon, against the sun, for he shineth full gloriously and nobly.


On the contrary, the phoenix joined the symbolism of fire initiation rites of death and rebirth on contrary to Lucifer, the bearer of light precipitated in the flames of hell, embodies the fire did not consume and excludes regeneration.

In some cremation ritual, the fire is also considered as a vehicle or messenger of the world of the living to the dead and, the phoenix is often a star indicating the nature of heaven and living in another world. While the Middle Ages saw in him the symbol of the resurrection of Christ [ref. necessary].

The most memorable is the phoenix - the "Fire Bird." The phoenix originated as a bird of prey covered in flames, living in the hottest places of the world. It is said that the phoenix builds a nest out of ashes, and dies within it only to be reborn. It is also said that when one lays an egg, it dies as soon as its young hatches as it is reincarnated as its own child. Writers have taken the phoenix and applied its feathers-of-flame to other birds, and is known to be a fiery swan with rainbow-like feathers upon its wings.

In heraldry the mythical bird, therefore, also evokes the creative and destructive fire. As the sun, fire symbolizes the fertilizing [ref. necessary]. In consuming, it purifies and allows regeneration. Considering these qualities, the family with this crest can be assumed to have long lives. The phoenix itself, however, is a rare sight to see on shields. Since the phoenix is known for rebirth, the knight who bears the fire bird may have earned the honor of bearing the symbol by surviving when all hope is lost, or by being pronounced "dead" officially then returning back to life. (Ie, missing on the battle field and assumed dead, then returning perhaps several months later.) The phoenix can also be seen adorning the signs of towns that have been destroyed during a war or raid and then rebuilt

The Phoenix (or Phoenix), is imaginary heraldry, is a bird on a burning pyre. This bird is similar to the heraldic eagle and is sometimes defined as one of its variants. He is represented facial, head profile, wings extended, on its stake, called "immortality".

Here against weapons of Malet of Lussart: blue with a phoenix on his immortality, watching the sun, while gold, which illustrates the kinship with the eagle, known only able to watch the sun opposite



 In Persian mythology, Si'morgh was a winged, bird-like creature that was very large and extremely ancient. The Simurgh appears in many Iranian literary classics such as Farid ud-Din Attar's Conference of the Birds as instructor and birds leader, and in Ferdowsi's epic Shahnameh (The Book of Kings); Phoenix raised up and cherished Zaal or Zal, father of Rostam.

The phoenix is a central figure in Lebanese ancient and modern cultures, as Lebanese are descendants of the Phoenicians and often claim themselves sons of the Phoenix. Lebanon, and Beirut particularly, is often depicted symbolically as a phoenix bird having been destroyed and rebuilt 7 times during its long history.

Even Far East : Chinese mythology, the fenghuang, with its own set of characteristics and symbolic meanings. In China, Fenghuang ("鳳凰") is a mythical bird superficially similar to the phoenix. It is the second most-respected legendary creature (second to the dragon), largely used to represent the empress and females. The phoenix is the leader of birds..

In Japan, In Japan, the phoenix is called hō-ō(kanji:"鳳凰") or fushichō (不死鳥, fushichō?); "Immortal Bird".the phoenix on top of Kinkaku-ji temple, Kyoto, Japan


 In Russian folklore, the phoenix appears as the Zhar-Ptitsa  or firebird, subject of the famous 1910 ballet score by Igor Stravinsky.

The phoenix was featured in the flags of Alexander Ypsilantis and of many other captains during the Greek Revolution, symbolizing Greece's rebirth, and was chosen by John Capodistria as the first Coat of Arms of the Greek State (1828-1832). In addition, the first modern Greek currency bore the name of phoenix. Despite being replaced by a royal Coat of Arms, it remained a popular symbol, and was used again in the 1930s by the Second Hellenic Republic. However, its use by the military junta of 1967-1974 made it extremely unpopular, and it has almost disappeared from use after 1974, with the notable exception of the Greek Order of the Phoenix).



Teatro La Fenice ("The Phoenix") is an opera house in Venice, Italy. It is one of the most famous theatres in Europe, the site of many famous operatic premieres. Its name reflects its role in permitting an opera company to "rise from the ashes" despite losing the use of two theatres (to fire and legal problems respectively). Since opening and being named La Fenice, it has burned three times and then been rebuilt.

In 1774, the San Benedetto Theatre, which had been Venice's leading opera house for more than forty years, burned to the ground. No sooner had it been rebuilt than a legal dispute broke out between the company managing it and the owners, the Venier family. The issue was decided in favor of the Veniers. As a result, the theatre company decided to build a new opera house of its own on the Campo San Fantin.

The construction began in June 1790, and by May 1792 the theatre was completed. It was named "La Fenice", in reference to the company's survival, first of the fire, then of the loss of its former quarters. La Fenice was inaugurated on May 16, 1792 with an opera by Giovanni Paisiello entitled I Giochi di Agrigento.

From the beginning of the 19th century, La Fenice acquired a European reputation. Rossini mounted two major productions in the theatre and Bellini had two operas premiered there. Donizetti, fresh from his triumphs in Milan and Naples, returned to Venice in 1836, after an absence of seventeen years.

In December 1836, disaster struck again when the theatre was destroyed by fire. However, it was quickly rebuilt with a design provided by the architect-engineer team of the brothers, Tommaso Meduna and Giambattista Meduna

            La Fenice once again rose from its ashes to open its doors on the evening of December 26, 1837. Giuseppe Verdi's association with La Fenice began in 1844, with a performance of Ernani during the Carnival season. Over the next thirteen years, the premieres of Attila, Rigoletto, La Traviata and Simon Boccanegra took place there. During the First World War, La Fenice was closed, but reopened to again become the scene of much activity, attracting many of the world's greatest singers and conductors. In 1930, the Venice Biennale initiated the First International Festival of Contemporary Music, which brought such composers as Stravinsky and Britten, and more recently Berio, Nono and Bussotti, to write for La Fenice. 

The helicopter worked the all night but the theatre was all destroy. But all the house near was safe. Another big danger was that the fire could spread in the nearest buildings. How you can see the house in Venice are very very near .... so it's easy for the fire pass from one to another ....

For months a lot of people did a pilgrimage  to the theatre ....put the flowers ... crying .. put message ...It looked like if a real person was died .... very very strange ...  

 On 29 January 1996, it was completely destroyed by fire. Arson was immediately suspected. In March 2001, a court in Venice found two electricians guilty of setting the fire. Enrico Carella and his cousin, Massimiliano Marchetti, appeared to have set the building ablaze because their company was facing heavy fines over delays in repair work. Carella, the company's owner, disappeared after a final appeal was turned down. He had been sentenced for seven years. Marchetti surrenderd to serve a six-year sentence. After various delays, reconstruction began in earnest in 2001. In 650 days, a team of two hundred plasterers, artists, woodworkers, and other craftsman succeeded in recreating the ambience of the old theatre at a cost of some €90 million. La Fenice was rebuilt in 19th-century style on the basis of a design by architect Aldo Rossi and using still photographs from the opening scenes of Luchino Visconti's 1954 film Senso, which was filmed in the house, in order to obtain details of its design. It reopened on 14 December 2003 with an inaugural concert of Beethoven, Wagner, and Stravinsky. The first opera production was La traviata in November 2004.

Critical response to the rebuilt La Fenice was mixed. The music critic of the rightwing paper Il Tempo, Enrico Cavalotti, was satisfied. He found the colours a bit bright but the sound good and compact. However, for his colleague Dino Villatico of the leftwing La Repubblica the acoustics of the new hall lacked resonance and the colours were painfully bright. He found it "kitsch, a fake imitation of the past". He said that "the city should have had the nerve to build a completely new theater; Venice betrayed its innovative past by ignoring it".

However, for many Venetians, a painful wound in the historical, much-admired, much adored cityscape has begun to heal.


 It is fascinating to observe that everywhere in folklores, birds and fire have played a decisive  part in expansion of human dreams..

 The Phoenix is clearly a symbol of the cycle immutable human activities with its alternations of glory and darkness and into our daily behaviour and the representation of what is at the heart of all existence: the human being he is not settled by the pulse of his heart systole and diastole image of unceasing renewal of life from death and regfenerescence of our cells 

Both  have been since the beginning of the world companions of human daily life and imagination and dreams 

Sign of the presence of the gods, metamorphosis appears in mythology as essential trip Change shape, essence is probably in the eyes of humans the highest expression of the power of the gods, for if gods immortality is not always perceived by the human soul, metamorphosis, however, is a prodigy almost always visible and palpable




[1] (Histoire II. 73.1)

[2] (Mét. 15, 392-409)

[3]  The History of Nature or The Naturall History of C. Plinius Secundus. Book X, Chpt. 2 Of the Phoenix

[4] The History of Nature or The Natural History of C. Plinius Secundus

Book X, Chpt. 2 Of the Phoenix:

[5] s The History of Nature or The Natural History of C. Plinius Secundus Book X, Chpt. 2 Of The Phoenix:

[6] The History of Nature or The Natural Historie of C. Plinius Secundus

Book X, Chpt. 2 Of the Phoenix:

[7] Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca. 56 – ca. 117) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero and those that reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors.

[8]  Martial, Epigrams. Book 5. Bohn's Classical Library (1897) V.VII, same story in p. papinivs stativs 95 

[9] As being the offspring of Mars, to whom Vulcan was an enemy on account of the liberties which he had taken with Venus

[10] Nets in which Venus and Mars were caught by Vulcan. See Odyss. B. viii

[11] (Pharsalia, book 6, verse 791-805)

[12] STACE Silves Livre III, II,  101-116 Adieu à Metius Céler

[13] Clement d'Alexandria (150-220) chapter 25 of The First Epistle of Clement:

[14] Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius (250-325)

[15] Etymologies, Book 12, 7:22

[16] Job 29:18, "Hol" could be read as "sand or "Phoenix"

[17] Guillaume le Clerc  [13th century] (Bestiary) Kuhns translation)

[18] De proprietatibus rerum, book 12

[19] Travels, chapter 7

Date de dernière mise à jour : 29/07/2013

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