SHAKESPEARE : MÉDECINE ET MÉDECINS DANS LE THÉÂTRE DE WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

MÉDECINE ET MÉDECINS DANS LE THÉÂTRE DE WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

André J. Fabre                                              Janvier 2016

MÉDECINE ET MÉDECINS DANS LE THÉÂTRE DE WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

 

Depuis plus de quatre siècles le théâtre de William Shakespeare[1] [2] fascine par la profondeur et l'acuité de ses portraits psychologiques. Il est réputé pour sa maîtrise des formes poétiques et littéraires, ainsi que sa capacité à représenter les aspects de la nature humaine.

Cependant il n'a pas été assez relevé l'importance des observations faites par Shakespeare en médecine : à d'innombrables passages de ses œuvres, apparait la connaissance étendue qu'avais de la médecine de son époque le Grand Barde de Stratford en Avon.

Voici une liste de chapitres analysés :

 

 

abcès,

   furoncles et fistules

Even two thousand men and twenty-thousand ducats are just the beginning of what it will cost to settle this pointless matter. This is what happens when countries have too much money and peace. This quarrel is like an abscess that grows inside someone until it bursts and kills them, and no one knows why. (to the Captain) Thank you very much for the information, sir.

(Hamlet, Acte IV, scene 4)

Bertram. What is it, my good lord, the king languishes of?

Lafeu. A fistula[3], my lord.

Bertram. I heard not of it before.

(All is well that ends well 1,131)

accouchement

He plough'd her, and she cropp'd.  ~

 Antony and Cleopatra (Act II, scene 2)

alcoolisme

Bien que Shakespeare n'utilisa jamais le mot "alcoolisme", il est clair que certains de ses personnages en présentent les symptômes de la maladie :. Bardolph, par exemple, a un nez rouge en forme de bulbe provoqué par son goût pour la malvoisie, un vin de Madère. De meme, Falstaff adore boire un certain vin blanc sec, et va jusqu'à en recommander la dépendance à elle dans le passage de la prose qui suit: "If I had a thousand sons, the first human principle I would teach them should be to forswear thin potations and to addict themselves to sack."(Act IV, Scène 2)

amaigrissement

Dans Richard II, l'allusion à l'"amaigrissement" se situe dans un dialogue entre le roi Richard et John of Gaunt qui fait un jeu de mots sur son proper nom

O how that name befits my composition! 

Old Gaunt indeed, and gaunt in being old: 

Within me grief hath kept a tedious fast; 

And who abstains from meat that is not gaunt? 760

For sleeping England long time have I watch'd; 

Watching breeds leanness, leanness is all gaunt: 

The pleasure that some fathers feed upon, 

Is my strict fast; I mean, my children's looks; 

And therein fasting, hast thou made me gaunt: 765

Gaunt am I for the grave, gaunt as a grave, 

Whose hollow womb inherits nought but bones.

Richard II (Act II, Scene 1)

anxieté

Appréhension et d'inquiétude; nervosité. L'anxiété est une réaction normale si la cause du malaise constitue une menace de préjudice physique, l'embarras, inversion financière, etc. Il est une réaction anormale si la cause est sans danger, mais perçu comme dangereux ou si les symptômes sont exagérées hors de proportion avec la menace. Parmi les symptômes possibles sont la transpiration, pouls rapide, et le tremblement. Anxiété dépasse Macbeth après le premier meurtrier lui dit que  bien Banquo est morte dans un fossé son fils Fleance a échappé. Macbeth réagit avec la réponse suivante allitératif reflétant son inquiétude

"But now I am cabin'd, cribb'd, confined, bound in / .To saucy doubts and fears. But Banquo's safe?"

(Macbeth 3.4.29-30)

apnée du sommeil

             Falstaff

              Henry IV" n°1 et n°2,  compagnon du prince Hal, le futur roi Henry V et dans "Les Joyeuses Commères de Windsor",

asthme

Thersites (un Grec dont le corps est deformé).

Why, his masculine whore. Now, the rotten diseases 

of the south, the guts-griping, ruptures, catarrhs, 

loads o' gravel I' the back, lethargies, cold 

palsies, raw eyes, dirt-rotten livers, wheezing 2950

lungs, bladders full of imposthume, sciaticas, 

limekilns I' the palm, incurable bone-ache, and the 

rivelled fee-simple of the tetter, take and take 

again such preposterous discoveries!

Troiles and Cressida (Act V, scene 1)

   

blessure

He jests at scars that never felt a wound.”

 Romeo and Juliet (Act II, scène 2)

cancer

O Agamemnon, let it not be so!

We'll consecrate the steps that Ajax makes

When they go from Achilles: shall the proud lord

That bastes his arrogance with his own seam

And never suffers matter of the world

Enter his thoughts, save such as do revolve

And ruminate himself, shall he be worshipp'd

Of that we hold an idol more than he?

No, this thrice worthy and right valiant lord

Must not so stale his palm, nobly acquired;

Nor, by my will, assubjugate his merit,

As amply titled as Achilles is,

By going to Achilles:

That were to enlard his fat already pride

And add more coals to Cancer when he burns

With entertaining great Hyperion.

This lord go to him! Jupiter forbid,

And say in thunder 'Achilles go to him

Troilus and Cassida II, 3

catarrhe respiratoire

Catarrh Inflammation of mucous membranes, mainly those of the nose and throat, causing increased secretion of mucous. In Troilus and Cressida, Thersites curses Patroclus, saying,

Why, his masculine whore. Now, the rotten diseases 

of the south, the guts-griping, ruptures, catarrhs, 

loads o' gravel i' the back, lethargies, cold 

palsies, raw eyes, dirt-rotten livers, wheezing 2950

lungs, bladders full of imposthume, sciaticas, 

limekilns i' the palm, incurable bone-ache, and the 

rivelled fee-simple of the tetter, take and take 

again such preposterous discoveries! "

Troilus and Cassida  (5.1.18). 

céphalées

Arthur rappelled à Hubert le temps où il le reconfortait sur ses maux de tête :  

ArthurHave you the heart? When your head did but ache, 

I knit my handercher about your brows, 

The best I had, a princess wrought it me, 1625

And I did never ask it you again; 

And with my hand at midnight held your head, 

And like the watchful minutes to the hour, 

Still and anon cheer'd up the heavy time, 

Saying, 'What lack you?' and 'Where lies your grief?' 1630

Or 'What good love may I perform for you?' 

Many a poor man's son would have lien still 

And ne'er have spoke a loving word to you; 

But you at your sick service had a prince. 

Nay, you may think my love was crafty love 1635

And call it cunning: do, an if you will: 

If heaven be pleased that you must use me ill, 

Why then you must. Will you put out mine eyes? 

These eyes that never did nor never shall 

So much as frown on you.1640

The life and death of King John (Act I, scene I)

cheveux

Gertrude décrit Hamlet quand il parle à son père

Alas, how is ’t with you,

That you do bend your eye on vacancy

And with th' incorporal air do hold discourse?

Forth at your eyes your spirits wildly peep,

And, as the sleeping soldiers in th' alarm,

Your bedded hair, like life in excrements,

Starts up and stands on end. O gentle son,

Upon the heat and flame of thy distemper

Sprinkle cool patience. Whereon do you look? "

Hamlet III, scene 4

cheville

. My lord, as I was sewing in my closet,

Lord Hamlet, with his doublet all unbrac'd, 1035

No hat upon his head, his stockings foul'd,

Ungart'red, and down-gyved to his ankle;

Pale as his shirt, his knees knocking each other,

And with a look so piteous in purport

As if he had been loosed out of hell 1040

To speak of horrors- he comes before me.

(Hamlet, Acte II, scene 1)

coeur

Mine eye and heart are at a mortal war

How to divide the conquest of thy sight;

Mine eye my heart thy picture's sight would bar,

My heart mine eye the freedom of that right.

My heart doth plead that thou in him dost lie --

A closet never pierced with crystal eyes --

But the defendant doth that plea deny

And says in him thy fair appearance lies.

To 'cide this title is impanneled

A quest of thoughts, all tenants to the heart,

And by their verdict is determined

The clear eye's moiety and the dear heart's part:

   As thus; mine eye's due is thy outward part,

   And my heart's right thy inward love of heart.

(Sonnet 46)

Have you the heart? When your head did but ache

Life and death of King John, Act IV, scene 1

Convulsion

Go charge my goblins that they grind their joints

With dry convulsions, shorten up their sinews

With aged cramps, and more pinch-spotted make them

Than pard or cat o' mountain.

Tempest [IV, 1

convulsion

   epilepsie

   comitialmité

And when the fit was on him, I did mark 

How he did shake. 'Tis true, this god did shake!

His coward lips did from their color fly,

And that same eye whose bend doth awe the world

Did lose his luster. I did hear him groan,

Ay, and that tongue of his that bade the Romans

Mark him and write his speeches in their books—

Cassius. But soft, I pray you. What, did Caesar swound?

Casca. He fell down in the market place and foamed at mouth and was speechless.

Brutus. 'Tis very like. He hath the falling sickness.

 (Julius Caesar, Act I, scene 2)

cou

He takes her up, and declines his head upon her neck.

(Hamlet, III, scene 2)

cyphose

Richard III est presenté, bien qu'iI n'y ait aucune prevue dans les texts historiques comme un boosu :

  “cheated of feature by dissembling nature / Deformed, unfinished, sent before my time into this breathing world

(Richard III 1.1.21-22).. 

démence

Dérangement mental; Folie; incapacité à penser rationnellement ou responsable. Maladies dans lesquelles la folie peut se développer comme un symptôme de la maladie comprennent la maladie d'Alzheimer, la démence, la sénilité, la psychose, la schizophrénie, et la paranoïa. Insanity ou ce qui semble être la folie-joue un rôle important dans beaucoup de pièces de Shakespeare, notamment Hamlet, le Roi Lear, Macbeth.

Dans Hamlet, une question clé tout au long du jeu est de savoir si Hamlet est vraiment fou ou simplement faire semblant d'être-ou, comme dit Hamlet dans l'Acte I, scène V, mettre sur une «disposition antique : .

" And therefore as a stranger give it welcome.

There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio,

Than are dreamt of in your philosophy. But come,

Here, as before, never, so help you mercy,

How strange or odd soe'er I bear myself

(As I perchance hereafter shall think meet

To put an antic disposition on),

 

Dans Le Roi Lear, les anciennes pièces de roi ce semblent être des symptômes de démence, sénilité, et peut-être la maladie d'Alzheimer, mais il est pas si loin de nous qu'il ne peut pas voir la folie de ses moyens.

Dans Macbeth, rongeant la culpabilité entraîne Lady Macbeth fou, lui causant de somnambulisme et à plusieurs reprises se laver les mains pour les purifier de sa culpabilité.

démence senile,

 Alzheimer

La perte de mémoire à court terme, l'irritabilité et la confusion sont parmi les symptômes de la maladie. La maladie d'Alzheimer et la maladie de Pick sont des variétés spécifiques de l'affliction. Bien que les symptômes de la maladie de Pick sont semblables à ceux de la maladie d'Alzheimer, la première se produit généralement à l'âge mûr. Le Roi Lear, dans la pièce de Shakespeare du même nom, souffre de toute évidence d'une forme de démence. Son comportement et Raving explosions erratiques témoignent de sa dépression mentale. Cependant, parce qu'il perd jamais complètement contact avec la réalité, il est capable de reconnaître ses lacunes avant que les extrémités de jeu.. 

dent

The sixth age shifts 1055

Into the lean and slipper'd pantaloon, 

With spectacles on nose and pouch on side, 

His youthful hose, well sav'd, a world too wide 

For his shrunk shank; and his big manly voice, 

Turning again toward childish treble, pipes 1060

And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all, 

That ends this strange eventful history, 

Is second childishness and mere oblivion; 

Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans every thing.

As you like it Act II scene 7

depression

. Hamlet et e Roi Lear sont des cas typiques de depression 

down, thou climbing sorrow, Thy element’s below

. (King Lear, Acte II, sc. 4).

doigt

 

Look, how this ring encompasseth finger;

Even so thy breast encloseth my poor heart.

Wear both of them, for both of them are thine.

And if thy poor devoted servant may

But beg one favor at thy gracious hand,

Thou dost confirm his happiness forever

 (Richard III, Acte I, scene 2

douleurs,

 algies diverses

:

"To-night that shalt have cramps / Side-stitches that shall pen they breath up” (The tempest 1.2.389-390).

Voir aussi le poeme The Rape of Lucrece:

 "The aged man that coffers-up his gold / Is plagued with cramps and gouts and painful fits" (855-866). 

dyspepsie

Dans Cymbeline, Pisanio donne à  Imogen un  elixir pour le soulager du mal de mer.

If you are sick at sea,” he says, “Or stomach-qualm'd at land, a dram of this / Will drive away distemper" (Cymbeline 3.4.206-207).

dyspnee

Why, his masculine whore. Now, the rotten diseases

of the south, the guts-griping, ruptures, catarrhs,

loads o' gravel i' the back, lethargies, cold

palsies, raw eyes, dirt-rotten livers, wheezing

lungs, bladders full of imposthume, sciaticas,

limekilns i' the palm, incurable bone-ache, and the

rivelled fee-simple of the tetter, take and take

again such preposterous discoveries!

Troilus and Cassida V, 1

enuresie

 Une allusion à l'enuresie est dans  in All’s Well That Ends Well when Parolles recites this prose passage:

 "For he will be swine-drunk; and in his sleep he does little harm, save to his bed-clothes about him; but they know his conditions and lay him in straw"

All’s Well That Ends Well (4.3.109). 

epaule

Dromio of Ephesus. I have some marks of yours upon my pate,

Some of my mistress' marks upon my shoulders,

(The Comedy of errors, ActI, scene 32

expectoration

Shall we clap into't roundly, without hawking, or

spitting, or saying we are hoarse, which are the only prologues

to a bad voice?

(As You Like It [V, 3

fièvre

As dim and meagre as an ague's fit.”  (King John, III, 4.87-90)

Shakespeare refere à la  fievre dans six de ses pièces et à "ague in nine plays.

Caesar tells Caius Ligarius, “Caesar was ne’er so much your enemy as that same ague which hath made you lean

(Julius Caesar, 2.2.24-25).

fistule

. In All’s Well That Ends Well, The King of France suffers from a fistula and Helena cures it using potions developed by her father before he died.  

Bertram : What is it, my good lord, the king languishes of?

lafeu : A fistula, my lord.

All’s Well That Ends Well,

foie

Yes, one; and in this manner. He was to imagine me his

love, his mistress; and I set him every day to woo me; at which

time would I, being but a moonish youth, grieve, be effeminate,

changeable, longing and liking, proud, fantastical, apish,

shallow, inconstant, full of tears, full of smiles; for every

passion something and for no passion truly anything, as boys and

women are for the most part cattle of this colour; would now like

him, now loathe him; then entertain him, then forswear him; now

weep for him, then spit at him; that I drave my suitor from his

mad humour of love to a living humour of madness; which was, to

forswear the full stream of the world and to live in a nook

merely monastic. And thus I cur'd him; and this way will I take

upon me to wash your liver as clean as a sound sheep's heart,

that there shall not be one spot of love in 't.

As you like it III, 2

fracture

Marry, do I, sir, and I came to acquaint you with a matter. I am given, sir, secretly to understand that your younger brother Orlando hath a disposition to come in disguised against me to try a fall. Tomorrow, sir, I wrestle for my credit, and he that escapes me without some broken limb shall acquit him well. Your brother is but young and tender, and, for your love I would be loath to foil him, as I must for my own honor if he come in. Therefore, out of my love to you, I came hither to acquaint you withal, that either you might stay him from his intendment or brook such disgrace well as he shall run into, in that it is a thing of his own search and altogether against my will.

(As you like it, Act I, scene 1)

frisson

Hadst thou been aught but gossamer, feathers, air,

So many fathom down precipitating,

Thou'dst shiver'd like an egg: but thou dost breathe;

Hast heavy substance; bleed'st not; speak'st; art sound.

Ten masts at each make not the altitude

Which thou hast perpendicularly fell:

Thy life's a

(King Lear Act IV, scene 6)

furoncle

Blain Painful skin swelling or sore. In a soliloquy in Timon of Athens, Timon curses all Athenians, wishing that

"itches, blains, / Sow all the Athenian bosoms"

(Timon of Athens, 4.1.30-31). 

. In Coriolanus, Martius (Coriolanus) curses enemies, saying,

MARTIUS

O noble fellow!

Who sensibly outdares his senseless sword,

And, when it bows, stands up. Thou art left, Marcius:

A carbuncle entire, as big as thou art,

Were not so rich a jewel. Thou wast a soldier

Even to Cato's wish, not fierce and terrible

Only in strokes; but, with thy grim looks and

The thunder-like percussion of thy sounds,

Thou madst thine enemies shake, as if the world

Were feverous and did tremble.

  The tragedy of Coriolanus, Act I, scene 1

In King Lear, the old king rebukes one of his evil daughters, calling her

“a boil, a plague-sore, an embossed carbuncle

(King Lear2.4.228-229).

gémellité, jumeau

Marina thus the brothel 'scapes, and chances

Into an honest house, our story says.

She sings like one immortal, and she dances

As goddess-like to her admired lays;

Deep clerks she dumbs; and with her needle composes

Nature's own shape, of bud, bird, branch, or berry,

That even her art sisters the natural roses;

Her inkle, silk, twin with the rubied cherry:

That pupils lacks she none of noble race,

Who pour their bounty on her; and her gain

She gives the cursed bawd. Here we her place;

And to her father turn our thoughts again,

Where we left him, on the sea. We there him lost;

Whence, driven before the winds, he is arrived

Here where his daughter dwells; and on this coast

Suppose him now at anchor. The city strived

God Neptune's annual feast to keep: from whence

Lysimachus our Tyrian ship espies,

His banners sable, trimm'd with rich expense;

And to him in his barge with fervor hies.

In your supposing once more put your sight

Of heavy Pericles; think this his bark:

Where what is done in action, more, if might,

Shall be discover'd; please you, sit and hark

Perciles IV 0

On our side like the token'd pestilence,

Where death is sure. Yon ribaudred nag of Egypt,—

Whom leprosy o'ertake!—i' the midst o' the fight,

When vantage like a pair of twins appear'd,

Both as the same, or rather ours the elder,

The breese upon her, like a cow in June,

Hoists sails and flies.

Antoine et Cleopatre III 10

 

Letter for letter, but that the name of Page and

Ford differs! To thy great comfort in this mystery

of ill opinions, here's the twin-brother of thy

letter: but let thine inherit first; for, I

protest, mine never shall. I warrant he hath a

thousand of these letters, writ with blank space for

different names—sure, more,—and these are of the

second edition: he will print them, out of doubt;

for he cares not what he puts into the press, when

he would put us two. I had rather be a giantess,

and lie under Mount Pelion. Well, I will find you

twenty lascivious turtles ere one chaste man

The merry wives of Windsor Act II 1

This cardinal,

Though from an humble stock, undoubtedly

Was fashion'd to much honour from his cradle.

He was a scholar, and a ripe and good one;

Exceeding wise, fair-spoken, and persuading:

Lofty and sour to them that loved him not;

But to those men that sought him sweet as summer.

And though he were unsatisfied in getting,

Which was a sin, yet in bestowing, madam,

He was most princely: ever witness for him

Those twins Of learning that he raised in you,

Ipswich and Oxford! one of which fell with him,

Unwilling to outlive the good that did it;

The other, though unfinish'd, yet so famous,

So excellent in art, and still so rising,

That Christendom shall ever speak his virtue.

His overthrow heap'd happiness upon him;

For then, and not till then, he felt himself,

And found the blessedness of being little:

And, to add greater honours to his age

Than man could give him, he died fearing God.

Henri VIII  IV 2

genou

Here on my knee, before high heaven and you,

That before you, and next unto high heaven,

I love your son.

My friends were poor, but honest; so's my love:

Be not offended; for it hurts not him

That he is loved of me: I follow him not

By any token of presumptuous suit;

Nor would I have him till I do deserve him;

Yet never know how that desert should be.

I know I love in vain, strive against hope;

Yet in this captious and intenible sieve

I still pour in the waters of my love

And lack not to lose still: thus, Indian-like,

Religious in mine error, I adore

The sun, that looks upon his worshipper,

But knows of him no more. My dearest madam,

Let not your hate encounter with my love

For loving where you do: but if yourself,

Whose aged honour cites a virtuous youth,

Did ever in so true a flame of liking

Wish chastely and love dearly, that your Dian

Was both herself and love: O, then, give pity

To her, whose state is such that cannot choose

But lend and give where she is sure to lose;

That seeks not to find that her search implies

All is well tht ends well IK, 3

genou

Then, I confess,

Here on my knee, before high heaven and you,

That before you, and next unto high heaven,

I love your son.

My friends were poor, but honest; so's my love:

Be not offended; for it hurts not him

That he is loved of me: I follow him not

By any token of presumptuous suit;

Nor would I have him till I do deserve him;

Yet never know how that desert should be.

I know I love in vain, strive against hope;

Yet in this captious and intenible sieve

I still pour in the waters of my love

And lack not to lose still: thus, Indian-like,

Religious in mine error, I adore

The sun, that looks upon his worshipper,

But knows of him no more. My dearest madam,

Let not your hate encounter with my love

For loving where you do: but if yourself,

Whose aged honour cites a virtuous youth,

Did ever in so true a flame of liking

Wish chastely and love dearly, that your Dian

Was both herself and love: O, then, give pity

To her, whose state is such that cannot choose

But lend and give where she is sure to lose;

That seeks not to find that her search implies,

But riddle-like lives sweetly where she dies!

All is well that ends well I, 3

All which time

Before the gods my knee shall bow my prayers

To them for you.

Antony and Cleopatra II, 3

 

gibbosité, bossu

Richard III

Queen margaret. Poor painted queen, vain flourish of my

    fortune!

    Why strew'st thou sugar on that bottled spider

    Whose deadly web ensnareth thee about?

Anne. Never hung poison on a fouler toad.

Scene 2.

London. Another street

Enter corpse of KING HENRY THE SIXTH, with halberds to guard it;

LADY ANNE being the mourner, attended by TRESSEL and BERKELEY

ANNE. Set down, set down your honourable load-

If honour may be shrouded in a hearse;

Whilst I awhile obsequiously lament

Th' untimely fall of virtuous Lancaster.

Poor key-cold figure of a holy king!

Pale ashes of the house of Lancaster!

Thou bloodless remnant of that royal blood!

Be it lawful that I invocate thy ghost

To hear the lamentations of poor Anne,

Wife to thy Edward, to thy slaughtered son,

Stabb'd by the self-same hand that made these wounds.

Lo, in these windows that let forth thy life

I pour the helpless balm of my poor eyes.

O, cursed be the hand that made these holes!

Cursed the heart that had the heart to do it!

Cursed the blood that let this blood from hence!

More direful hap betide that hated wretch

That makes us wretched by the death of thee

Than I can wish to adders, spiders, toads,

Or any creeping venom'd thing that lives!

The life and death of Richard III Act I, Scene 2

goitre

GONZALO

Faith, sir, you need not fear. When we were boys,

Who would believe that there were mountaineers

Dewlapped like bulls, whose throats had hanging at 'em

Wallets of flesh, or that there were such men

Whose heads stood in their breasts?—which now we find

Each putter-out of five for one will bring us

Good warrant of

The tempest Act III, scene 3

goutte

With a priest that lacks Latin and a rich man that hath 

not the gout; for the one sleeps easily because he cannot study, 

and the other lives merrily because he feels no pain; the one 

lacking the burden of lean and wasteful learning, the other 

knowing no burden of heavy tedious penury. These Time ambles 

withal.

As You Like It, (III, 2)

Voir aussi

 Cymbeline, Henry IV Part II, Measure for Measure, and The Two Noble Kinsmen

grossesse

 

Helen

All is well that ends well

hallucinations

Macbeth also hallucinates when he sees the ghost of Banquo, who occupies Macbeth’s seat at a table during a banquet. In Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, the ghost of the murdered king appears to Hamlet. But is it really a ghost or merely a hallucination? Shakespeare suggests the ghost really appears while presenting evidence indicating the contrary.  

hanche

The Merchant of Venice V I.3 43

[Shylock to himself, of Antonio] If I can catch him once upon the hip, / I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him

MV IV.i.331

[Gratiano to Shylock] Now, infidel, I have you on the hip!

Oth II.i.296

[Iago alone] I'll have our Michael Cassio on the hip

 

hernie

Why, his masculine whore. Now, the rotten diseases

of the south, the guts-griping, ruptures, catarrhs,

loads o' gravel i' the back, lethargies, cold

palsies, raw eyes, dirt-rotten livers, wheezing

lungs, bladders full of imposthume, sciaticas,

limekilns i' the palm, incurable bone-ache, and the

rivelled fee-simple of the tetter, take and take

again such preposterous discoveries

Troilus and Cassida V, 1

herpes

Tetter Skin disease characterized by eruptions, itching, and sometimes itchy scales. Eczema, herpes, and impetigo are forms of it.

In Troilus and Cressida, Thersites curses Patroclus, wishing a tetter upon him. 

hysterie

Hysteria Condition characterized by anxiety, excessive display of emotion (crying, weeping or laughing, for example), or symptoms of organ malfunction or breakdown (such as deafness and blindness) even though there is no physical cause to explain the symptoms. In Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, Ophelia—“divided from herself" (4.5.54), as Claudius observes, over the death of her father and the departure of Hamlet—exhibits symptoms of hysteria when she sings songs and distributes herbs and flowers.  

idiocie,

  retard mental,

  stupiditét

Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player

That struts and frets his hour upon the stage

And then is heard no more: it is a tale

Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,

Signifying nothing.

Macbeth V, 5

impuissance

Impotence Inability of a male to engage in sexual intercourse. In Macbeth, a porter alludes to impotence when he tells Macduff that “drink” (alcoholic beverages) “provokes the desire, but it takes  away the performance”

Macbeth (2.3.9).

incontinence

Incontinence, Urinary Inability to prevent the discharge of urine. Pregnancy, an enlarged prostate gland, nerve disorders, injury, lack of exercise, muscle weakness in the elderly, and spinal disease are among the causes. Shakespeare alludes to the condition in The Merchant of Venice when Shylock says sneezing or blowing the nose (“when the bagpipe sings”) can cause a urine discharge in some men

(The Merchant of Venice 4.1.53). 

insomnie

Insomnia: Chronic inability to sleep. In Macbeth, the First Witch promises in to inflict insomnia on a sailor, saying, "Sleep shall neither night nor day / Hang upon his pent-house lid" (1.3.21.22). After murdering King Duncan, Macbeth tells Lady Macbeth,

Macbeth “Strange things I have in my head,” she replies, “You lack the season of all natures, sleep” (3.4.167)

Methought I heard a voice cry 'Sleep no more.

intestin

This man shall set me packing.

I’ll lug the guts into the neighbor room.

Mother, good night. Indeed this counselor

Is now most still, most secret, and most grave

Who was in life a foolish prating knave.—

Hamlet Act III Scene 4

Nothing but to show you how a king may go a progress through the guts of a beggar

Hamlet Act IV scene 3

 

kyste sebacé

Wen Benign tumor on the skin; sebaceous cyst.

In Henry IV Part II, Prince Hal refers to Falstaff as a wen. 

lèpre

Mildly infectious bacterial disease of the skin, nerves, cartilage, bone and other body parts. Skin lesions, edema, eye inflammation (keratitis or iritis), and nerve impairment are among the symptoms. Queen Margaret refers to the disease in Henry VI Part II

I am no loathsome leper; look on me. (3.2.79-81) 

Antony and Cleopatra and Timon of Athens

maigreur

Richard II    What comfort, man? how is't with aged Gaunt? 

John Of Gaunt    O how that name befits my composition! 

Old Gaunt indeed, and gaunt in being old: 

And who abstains from meat that is not gaunt? 

 Watching breeds leanness, leanness is all gaunt

Richard II. (2.1.75-81)

mal des transports

Nausea, sometimes accompanied by vomiting, caused by the rocking and pitching of a boat or ship. The illness is sometimes referred to by its French name, mal de mer. In Cymbeline, Pisanio gives Imogen a drug which he believes is an elixir to ward off illness. “If you are sick at sea,” he says, “Or stomach-qualm'd at land, a dram of this / Will drive away distemper"

Cymberline (3.4.205-207).

maladie

Our remedies oft in ourselves do lie,

Which we ascribe to heaven: the fated sky

Gives us free scope, only doth backward pull

Our slow designs when we ourselves are dull.

What power is it which mounts my love so high,

That makes me see, and cannot feed mine eye?

The mightiest space in fortune nature brings

To join like likes and kiss like native things.

Impossible be strange attempts to those

That weigh their pains in sense and do suppose

What hath been cannot be: who ever strove

So show her merit, that did miss her love?

The king's disease—my project may deceive me,

But my intents are fix'd and will not leave me.

All is well that ends well (1, 1, 331)

 

O Antony!

I have follow'd thee to this; but we do lance

Diseases in our bodies: I must perforce

Have shown to thee such a declining day,

Or look on thine; we could not stall together

In the whole world: but yet let me lament,

With tears as sovereign as the blood of hearts,

That thou, my brother, my competitor

In top of all design, my mate in empire,

Friend and companion in the front of war,

The arm of mine own body, and the heart

Where mine his thoughts did kindle,—that our stars,

Unreconciliable, should divide

Our equalness to this. Hear me, good friends—

But I will tell you at some meeter season:

[Enter an Egyptian]

The business of this man looks out of him;

We'll hear him what he says. Whence are you?

Antoine et Cleopatre (Act I, scene 1)

 

Most fair return of greetings and desires.

Upon our first, he sent out to suppress

His nephew's levies; which to him appear'd

To be a preparation 'gainst the Polack,

But better look'd into, he truly found

It was against your Highness; whereat griev'd,

That so his sickness, age, and impotence

Was falsely borne in hand, sends out arrests

On Fortinbras; which he, in brief, obeys,

Receives rebuke from Norway, and, in fine,

Makes vow before his uncle never more

To give th' assay of arms against your Majesty.

Whereon old Norway, overcome with joy,

Gives him three thousand crowns in annual fee

And his commission to employ those soldiers,

So levied as before, against the Polack;

With an entreaty, herein further shown,

[Gives a paper.]

That it might please you to give quiet pass

Through your dominions for this enterprise,

On such regards of safety and allowance

As therein are set down

Hamlet Act II, scene 2

mercure

That swift as quicksilver it courses through

(Hamlet  I.v.66

rogue fled from me like quicksilver.

(Henry IV,  II.iv.224   

monstre

He cannot be such a monster.

King Lear I, 2

myopie

I would fain prove so. But what might you think, 

When I had seen this hot love on the wing 

(As I perceiv'd it, I must tell you that, 

Before my daughter told me), what might you, 

Or my dear Majesty your queen here, think, 

If I had play'd the desk or table book, 

Or given my heart a winking, mute and dumb, 

Or look'd upon this love with idle sight

What might you think? No, I went round to work 

And my young mistress thus I did bespeak: 

'Lord Hamlet is a prince, out of thy star. 

This must not be.' And then I prescripts gave her, 

That she should lock herself from his resort, 

Admit no messengers, receive no tokens. 

Which done, she took the fruits of my advice, 

And he, repulsed, a short tale to make, 

Fell into a sadness, then into a fast, 

Thence to a watch, thence into a weakness, 

Thence to a lightness, and, by this declension, 

Into the madness wherein now he raves

Hamlet (Act II, 2

naevus

Patch’d with foul moles and eye-offending marks,

And chase the native beauty from his cheek 

Life and death of King John Act III Scene 1

nombril

when the navel of the state was touched,”

 Coriolan  III, 1, 123.

nouveau-né

When we are born, we cry that we are come

To this great stage of fools — This' a good block: —

It were a delicate strategem to shoe

A troop of horse with felt: I'll put 't in proof;

And when I have stol'n upon these sons-in-law,

Then kill, kill, kill, kill, kill, kill!

Lear, Act IV,Scene 6

nutrition

Chief nourisher in life's feast.

(Macbeth II, 2.46-51)

obesité

There is a devil that haunts thee in the likeness of an old fat man, a tun of man is thy companion.

(Henry IV Part I, Henry IV Part II,

Voir aussi

The Merry Wives of Windsor) and Cardinal Wolsey (Henry VIII). 

odeur

Truly, fortune's displeasure is but sluttish, if it 

smell so strongly as thou speakest of: I will 

henceforth eat no fish of fortune's buttering. 

Prithee, allow the wind.

All is well that ends well, V, 2

oeil,

  ophtalmologie

Our remedies oft in ourselves do lie,

Which we ascribe to heaven: the fated sky

Gives us free scope, only doth backward pull

Our slow designs when we ourselves are dull.

What power is it which mounts my love so high,

That makes me see, and cannot feed mine eye?

The mightiest space in fortune nature brings

To join like likes and kiss like native things.

Impossible be strange attempts to those

That weigh their pains in sense and do suppose

What hath been cannot

All is well that ends well Act I, scene 1

Le mot "eyeball" est dans Shakespeare

Advancing] And why, I pray you? Who might be your

mother,

That you insult, exult, and all at once,

Over the wretched? What though you have no beauty-

As, by my faith, I see no more in you

Than without candle may go dark to bed-

Must you be therefore proud and pitiless?

Why, what means this? Why do you look on me?

I see no more in you than in the ordinary

Of nature's sale-work. 'Od's my little life,

I think she means to tangle my eyes too!

No faith, proud mistress, hope not after it;

'Tis not your inky brows, your black silk hair,

Your bugle eyeballs, nor your cheek of cream,

That can entame my spirits to your worship.

You foolish shepherd, wherefore do you follow her,

As you like it  III,5

 

To feeling as to sight? or art thou but 

 

omoplate

O, good sir, softly, good sir! I fear, sir, my

shoulder-blade is out

Winter's Tale IV, 3

ongle

The very mould and frame of hand, nail, finger.

The Winter's Tale WT II.iii.102

oreille

You're shallow, madam, in great friends; for the

knaves come to do that for me which I am aweary of.

He that ears my land spares my team and gives me

leave to in the crop; if I be his cuckold, he's my

drudge: he that comforts my wife is the cherisher

of my flesh and blood; he that cherishes my flesh

and blood loves my flesh and blood; he that loves my

flesh and blood is my friend: ergo, he that kisses

my wife is my friend. If men could be contented to

be what they are, there were no fear in marriage;

for young Charbon the Puritan and old Poysam the

Papist, howsome'er their hearts are severed in

religion, their heads are both one; they may jowl

horns together, like any deer i' the herd.

all is well that ends well

All is well that ends well, I,

Brief let me be. Sleeping within my orchard,

My custom always of the afternoon,

Upon my secure hour thy uncle stole,

With juice of cursed hebenon in a vial,

And in the porches of my ears did pour

The leperous distilment; whose effect

Holds such an enmity with blood of man

Hamlet Act I, scene 5

paralysie

Lame, foolish, crooked, swart, prodigious,   48

In Troilus and Cressida, Thersites curses Patroclus, wishing “cold palsies” (5.1.18) upon him.  

Cripple our senators, that their limbs may halt 

As lamely as their manners.

Troilus and Cassida(4.1.25-27) 

paranoia

Idées délirantes de persécution ou de grandeur. La victime peut insister pour que les délires sont réels et tenter de se défendre contre des menaces perçues. (2) la suspicion déraisonnable des autres. Parmi les personnages de Shakespeare joue qui présentent des symptômes de paranoïa-raccord plupart d'entre eux la deuxième définition sont- Coriolanus, Othello, Hamlet, Macbeth, and Richard III

pied

'Tis but thy name that is my enemy.

Thou art thyself, though not a Montague.

What’s Montague? It is nor hand, nor foot,

Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part

Belonging to a man. O, be some other name!

What’s in a name? That which we call a rose

By any other word would smell as sweet.

So Romeo would, were he not Romeo called,

Retain that dear perfection which he owes

Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name,

And for that name, which is no part of thee

Take all myself

(Romeo and Julier Act II, scene 2)

plaie

Madam, the care I have had to even your content, I

wish might be found in the calendar of my past

endeavours; for then we wound our modesty and make

foul the clearness of our deservings, when of

ourselves we publish them

All that"s well ends well (I,3)

poignet

He took me by the wrist and held me hard;

Then goes he to the length of all his arm,

And, with his other hand thus o'er his brow,

He falls to such perusal of my face

As he would draw it. Long stay'd he so.

At last, a little shaking of mine arm,

And thrice his head thus waving up and down,

He rais'd a sigh so piteous and profound

As it did seem to shatter all his bulk

And end his being. That done, he lets me go,

And with his head over his shoulder turn'd

He seem'd to find his way without his eyes,

For out o' doors he went without their help

And to the last bended their light on me.

Hamlet II,1

pouce

What an arm he has! he turned me about with his

finger and his thumb, as one would set up a top.

 Hamlet [III, 2]

poumons

A fool, a fool! I met a fool i' th' forest,

A motley fool. A miserable world!

As I do live by food, I met a fool,

Who laid him down and bask'd him in the sun,

And rail'd on Lady Fortune in good terms,

In good set terms- and yet a motley fool.

'Good morrow, fool,' quoth I; 'No, sir,' quoth he,

'Call me not fool till heaven hath sent me fortune.'

And then he drew a dial from his poke,

And, looking on it with lack-lustre eye,

Says very wisely, 'It is ten o'clock;

Thus we may see,' quoth he, 'how the world wags;

'Tis but an hour ago since it was nine;

And after one hour more 'twill be eleven;

And so, from hour to hour, we ripe and ripe,

And then, from hour to hour, we rot and rot;

And thereby hangs a tale.' When I did hear

The motley fool thus moral on the time,

My lungs began to crow like chanticleer

That fools should be so deep contemplative;

And I did laugh sans intermission

An hour by his dial. O noble fool!

A worthy fool! Motley's the only wear

As you lke it (II,1)

prurit

Let me tell you, Cassius, you yourself 

Are much condemn'd to have an itching palm; 

To sell and mart your offices for gold 

To undeservers.

Julius Caesar IV, 3

rate

All this! ay, more: fret till your proud heart break;

Go show your slaves how choleric you are,

And make your bondmen tremble. Must I budge?

Must I observe you? must I stand and crouch

Under your testy humour? By the gods

You shall digest the venom of your spleen,

Though it do split you; for, from this day forth,

I'll use you for my mirth, yea, for my laughter,

When you are waspish

Julius Caesar IV, 3

rhinite

Ecoulement nasal : Dans un passage célèbre d' Othello, Othello demande à Desdemone de lui prêter son mouchoir, en disant: “I have a salt and sorry rheum offends me”

Othello(3.4.49).

References au rhume egalement  Antony and Cleopatra, Much Ado About Nothing, Coriolanus, and King John.  

rhinophyma

In Henry IV Part I, Falstaff alludes to rhinophyma when he tells Bardolph that his red nose resembles a lamp: "Do thou amend thy face, and I'll amend my life: thou art our admiral, thou bearest the lantern in the poop, but 'tis in the nose of thee; thou art the Knight of the Burning Lamp" (3.3.7).

In Macbeth, the porter also refers to rhinophyma after Macduff asks, “What three things does drink especially provoke?” The porter answers, “ Marry, sir, nose-painting, sleep, and urine" (Falstaff, 2.3.9).

rhumatisme

"And youthful still! in your doublet and hose this raw rheumatic day!"

The Merry Wives of Windsor, (3.1.21).

"By my troth, this is the old fashion; you two never meet but you fall to some discord: you are both, i' good truth, as rheumatic as two dry toasts; you cannot one bear with another's confirmities"

Henry IV Part II,  (2.4.24).

rougeole

How! no more!

As for my country I have shed my blood,

Not fearing outward force, so shall my lungs

Coin words till their decay against those measles,

Which we disdain should tatter us, yet sought

The very way to catch them

Coriolanus III, 1

sang

You're shallow, madam, in great friends; for the

knaves come to do that for me which I am aweary of.

He that ears my land spares my team and gives me

leave to in the crop; if I be his cuckold, he's my

drudge: he that comforts my wife is the cherisher

of my flesh and blood; he that cherishes my flesh

and blood loves my flesh and blood; he that loves my

flesh and blood is my friend: ergo, he that kisses

my wife is my friend. If men could be contented to

be what they are, there were no fear in marriage;

for young Charbon the Puritan and old Poysam the

Papist, howsome'er their hearts are severed in

religion, their heads are both one; they may jowl

horns together, like any deer i' the herd

All's well that ends well (I,3)

sciatique

Why, his masculine whore. Now, the rotten diseases

of the south, the guts-griping, ruptures, catarrhs,

loads o' gravel i' the back, lethargies, cold

palsies, raw eyes, dirt-rotten livers, wheezing

lungs, bladders full of imposthume, sciaticas,

limekilns i' the palm, incurable bone-ache, and the

rivelled fee-simple of the tetter, take and take

again such preposterous discoveries!

Troilus and Cassida V, 1

 

Maid, to thy master's bed;

Thy mistress is o' the brothel! Son of sixteen,

pluck the lined crutch from thy old limping sire,

With it beat out his brains! Piety, and fear,

Religion to the gods, peace, justice, truth, 1580

Domestic awe, night-rest, and neighbourhood,

Instruction, manners, mysteries, and trades,

Degrees, observances, customs, and laws,

Decline to your confounding contraries,

And let confusion live! Plagues, incident to men, 1585

Your potent and infectious fevers heap

On Athens, ripe for stroke! Thou cold sciatica,

Cripple our senators, that their limbs may halt

As lamely as their manners.

Act IV, Scene I, of Timon of Athens

scorbut

Shakespeare uses scurvy almost exclusively as an adjective, as in "Thou are but a scurvy fellow"

(Twelfth Night, 3.4.84).

sein

Peace, peace!

Dost thou not see my baby at my breast,

That sucks the nurse asleep?

Antony and Cleopatra V, 2

sexualité

Un livre entier de Gordon Williams est consacré à ce sujet :  Shakespeare's Sexual Language: A Glossary (Shakespeare Students Libray, 1997)

sommeil

In the affliction of these terrible dreams 

" That shake us nightly"

Macbeth Act III, scene 2

somnambulisme

"Since his majesty went into the field, I have seen her rise from her bed, throw her night-gown upon her, unlock her closet, take forth paper, fold it, write upon't, read it, afterwards seal it, and again return to bed; yet all this while in a most fast sleep" …

A great perturbation in nature, to receive at once the benefit of sleep, and do the line>effects of watching. In this slumbery agitation, besides her walking and other actual performances, what, at any time, have you heard her say?:

 Macbeth Act 5, scene 1

strabisme

This is the foul fiend Flibbertigibbet. He begins at curfew,

and walks till the first cock. He gives the web and the pin,

squints the eye, and makes the harelip; mildews the white wheat,

and hurts the poor creature of earth.

Saint Withold footed thrice the 'old;

He met the nightmare, and her nine fold;

Bid her alight

And her troth plight,

And aroint thee, witch, aroint thee!

King Lear III, 4

sueur

You are too indulgent. Let us grant, it is not

Amiss to tumble on the bed of Ptolemy;

To give a kingdom for a mirth; to sit

And keep the turn of tippling with a slave;

To reel the streets at noon, and stand the buffet

With knaves that smell of sweat: say this

becomes him,—

As his composure must be rare indeed

Whom these things cannot blemish,—yet must Antony

No way excuse his soils, when we do bear

So great weight in his lightness. If he fill'd

His vacancy with his voluptuousness,

Full surfeits, and the dryness of his bones,

Call on him for't: but to confound such time,

That drums him from his sport, and speaks as loud

As his own state and ours,—'tis to be chid

As we rate boys, who, being mature in knowledge,

Pawn their experience to their present pleasure,

And so rebel to judgment.

Antony and Cleopatra I, 4

syphilis

Le mot "pox", est utilisé fréquemment dans Shakespeare pour désigner , attestant de la présence répandue de la maladie dans l'Angleterre élisabéthaine. En fait, il s'agity souvent d'une maledictio :,

For this description of thine honesty? A pox upon

him for me, he's more and more a cat.

 All’s Well That Ends Well (4.3.111).

 

Reste le mot "pox" pour designer la variole .

teigne

Le mot "Serpigo" désigne le plus souvent  la  "teigne"

For thine own bowels, which do call thee sire,

The mere effusion of thy proper loins,

Do curse the gout, serpigo, and the rheum,

For ending thee no sooner. Thou hast nor youth nor age,

Troilus and Cressida (II, 3).  

Trouibles compulsive/

  obsessionnels

Trouble obsessionnel-compulsif où le malade souffre continuellement des pensées indésirables, par exemple, qu'il ou elle aura un accident ou d'un acte stupide dans certaines actions publiques ou cesse de répéter. Peut-être le plus célèbre personnage obsessionnel-compulsif dans l'ensemble de la littérature est Lady Macbeth, la femme du personnage principal dans Macbeth. Impossible de bannir ses sentiments obsessionnels de culpabilité, elle se lave à plusieurs reprises ses mains pour se purifier de culpabilité dans le assassiner du roi Duncan.  

Troubles mentaux psychopathie caractérisé par un comportement social et moral pour lequel la victime ne présente pas de honte ou de remords. Ainsi,  Richard III. "I am determined to prove a villain

And hate the idle pleasures of these days.," dit Richard dans le soliloque qui ouvre le jeu (1.1.32). Jusqu'à la fin, il est impénitent de ses mauvaises actions

tumeur, cancer

Pas de reference pour "tumor", carcinoma", mais "lump" est cité dans Henri VII

Hence, heap of wrath, foul indigested lump,

As crooked in thy manners as thy shape!

(Henry VII, V, 1)

uterus

Let me speak:

I have been consul, and can show for Rome

Her enemies' marks upon me. I do love

My country's good with a respect more tender,

More holy and profound, than mine own life,

My dear wife's estimate, her womb's increase,

And treasure of my loins; then if I would

Speak that,—

Coriolanus, III, 3

vomissement

It cannot be i' the eye, for apes and monkeys

'Twixt two such shes would chatter this way and

Contemn with mows the other; nor i' the judgment,

For idiots in this case of favour would

Be wisely definite; nor i' the appetite;

Sluttery to such neat excellence opposed

Should make desire vomit emptiness,

Not so allured to feed

Cymberline I, 6

 

, deeper sin than bottomless conceit

Can comprehend in still imagination!

Drunken Desire must vomit his receipt,

Ere he can see his own abomination.

While Lust is in his pride, no exclamation

Can curb his heat or rein his rash desire,

Till like a jade Self-will himself doth tire

Rape of Lucrece (Poemes, 785)

 

http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/search/search-results.php

 

[1] http://shakespeare.mit.edu/

[3] Il s'agit très probablement d'une fistule anale, Shakespeare faisant référence à un épisode médical célèbre, celui de la fistule du Roi de  France Charles V

Ajouter un commentaire

Vous utilisez un logiciel de type AdBlock, qui bloque le service de captchas publicitaires utilisé sur ce site. Pour pouvoir envoyer votre message, désactivez Adblock.

Date de dernière mise à jour : 09/02/2016

Créer un site gratuit avec e-monsite - Signaler un contenu illicite sur ce site