Jean-François Regnard in 17th century Lapland




André J. Fabre                     Octobre 2012                  

  A wealthy commoner and a compulsive traveller 

Jean-François Regnard (1656 - 1709) was a celebrated playwright[1] in his time but also a compassionate traveller. He was born in Paris from a wealthy fish merchant who left him a very rich legacy (120.000 gold louis…) : Regnard could thus very early decide to spend his life in pleasures and travels all over the Mediterranean and, mostly, to Italy. He came back from his first trip in Italy with thirty thousand ponds won at gambling and very soon, he was back;: once more, in Bologna.

There, Regnard is said to have had a love affair with a mysterious lady from Arles, in the south of France. Many adventures were to come : according to the very romanticized version given many years later by Regnard himself[2], when the lady and her husband had to return to France, Regnard joined the party aboard an English ship sailing from Civita Vecchia to Toulon. Just before arriving to Nizza, the ship was captured by a corsair, and brought to Algiers where crew and passengers were sold as slaves. The story says that Regnard was sold fifteen hundred ponds to be elected by his new master, a very rich Turk, as cock of the mansion[3]. After many adventures, including a come back of the mysterious lady, an aborted attempt to escape with his mistress from Algiers and three long years of detention, Regnard helped by the Consul de France, could in exchange of a heavy ransom; obtain at last, freedom. Now the story goes that after his return to Paris, Regnard, experienced a poignant deception in his love affair and decided to take the road again, this time to the North. He was just 25 yrs old at this time…

 A travel to Lapland in the year 1681[4]

 From Paris to Stockholm

 On march 1681, Regnard, leaves Paris with the Brussels mail-coach. His first stop is in Senlis to pick up his old friend Cousteaux de Fercourt[5] and another travel fanatic, Nicolas de Corberon[6]

Among the main places visited : Mons (the party gets accommodation at the Royal College of Chanoinesses ("de mœurs legeres[7]", says Regnard). On May 13, they are in Brussels, then in Flanders, Maline and Antwerp. From there, the party goes to Rotterdam, then sailing on a canal to Delft, The Hague, Leyde and Amsterdam. On may 25 1681, they leave Amsterdam to Vorkum (Wognum ?). They get after to Leuwarden and, later, Groningen, then, with a mail coach to Oldenburg, Bremen and Hamburg. After, they go to Flensburg, Niebury (Nyborg ?) and Roskilde.

On July 20, Regnard and his friends arrive in Copenhaguen, visiting with great interest, even if they encountered some problems with the Danish language[8], the "Tour ronde" (Rundetårn) and the famed Tycho Brahe's celestial globe[9],. Regnard is invited at the french Embassy in company of two pretty ladies from Revinsleau[10]. The next day, he is received at the Royal Court by king Christian V.

On July Ist, 1681,the party leaves Copenhaguen to get to Federiksburg (Fredensborg?) and Elseneur. They cross Öresund (with most adverse winds…) to arrive in Helsingborg.

After Engelholm and Halmstad, they stop in Jonköping to buy a chariot (at the price of "four écus"…) to a miserable peasant "living in a very moscovite shack"[11].

After arrival in Stockholm, the party is received by the French ambassador, M. de Feuquiere, then presented to king Carl XI who suggests Regnard to extend his travel to Lapland, a "picturesque country inhabited by the most amazing of all living peoples". Regnard and his friends stay for a while in Stockholm, impressed by "magnificent buildings and most courteous residents" and, on July 23, 1681 the party leaves Stockholm, sailing on the Gulf of Bothnia to faraway Lapland.


 Le 28 Juillet, 1681: arrivée à Torneå ( "la dernière ville dans le Nord ...»).

Trois jours plus tard, le 31 Juillet Regnard et ses amis partent pour une croisière sur la rivière Torne portable à bord de petits bateaux.

Le 15 août la partie atteint Kengis visiter le fer et le cuivre des forges.

Quelques jours plus tard, le 20 août, ils sont en Svappavaara où ils rencontrent un ancien mineur de langue anglaise en provenance de la Flandre.

Maintenant, Regnard et ses amis veulent prolonger leur voyage vers le pôle Nord ..., mais, arrivé à Torneträsk, os réfrigérées et épuisés, ils abandonnent, laissant là une stèle commémorative, le soi-disant Metavara stèle.

Le 31 août, ils sont en Pello à se joindre à une belle partie de pêche du brochet

Le. Septembre 2, ils sont de retour à Torneå: ils y restent une semaine entière au cours de laquelle ils se réunissent plusieurs notables, y compris les "bourguemestres» et le «Bailli "de la ville et également à la" très animé "les funérailles d'un prêtre célèbre la Laponie, Joannes Tornaeus

.Back to Stockholm 

September 9, the party leaves Torneå but, due to a very rough weather, their ship can just reach Ratan (near Robertfors), then Agbon (Bönan near Gävle ??) and Withseval (Withval ?).

From there they go visiting the Copperbery mines (Kopparberg, near Falun Dalecarlia) : there, Regnard gest a poetic inspiration comparing the galleries in the underground of the mine to the Inferno of Virgil. After that, they go to Uppsala where they visit the University and its celebrated Library where Regnard meets a well-known Professor in medicine, Olaus Rudbeckius [12] .On September 27, the party gets back to Stockholm. After that, they will extend their trip to Poland, then Hungary, Vienna and, on December 3, 1683, it is Paris again !

Lapland a strange country as seen by Regnard

 Regnard's Journal[13] is an invaluable document on early Scandinavia giving, besides many details on daily life, a comprehensive report of health conditions in Lapland of XVIIth century.

From the very start of the travel, Lapland's climate was a constant source of amazement for visitors coming from France : "what they call here violent summer would be rather called hard winter in France : to-day, Friday, August 15, very cold weather, snow is falling on the hills around us…".

Regnard was also very much impressed by Lapland's magnificent Nature and he found straight away in the forests inspiration for a beautiful poem : "Huge oak forests, dating back to the beginning of the world…"[14]

Many details are given by Regnard on animal life, especially on Nordic elks (a King's property …) and reindeers (main resource for the Lapps) but also on wolves (there is a description of a fight between Laplanders only armed with arrows and spears and a horde of wolves). Regnard had a keen interest (mainly as hunter ?) for birds : swallows (staying all winter buried in snow), fiaelripa (the "mountain bird" resembling a French "perdrix", indeed a substantial compliment) and snyeuripor (the "snow bird" using its white colour as camouflage).

Large mention is given to the "pest" of Lapland, namely mosquitoes compelling Laps to spend the whole summer in the smoke of fires.

As for the people from Lapland, Regnard gives a long description not only of their physical appearance[15] ("frail, 3 "coudées" high[16] with flat nose, long beards and black hair, wearing amazing dresses : a reinskin "sack" girdled with silver plates, knee boots, reinskin gloves and red bonnets topped with bird-like bobbles". Women are dressed with a "bag trimmes with a red collar ("craka") and some tin plates on the belt.").Of special interest for Regnard was to observe tools, handicraft, and equipments[17] : canoes, sledges ("puleas") and skis ("Lapps can move at very hig speed on 2 aunes[18] long planks spiked at their frontal extremities")

What impressed most Regnard was to find among Laplanders a true "lust for freedom" : a wandering folk with no other houses than a "wadmal" tended over four perches and pierced with a hole for chimney. But this wandering folk keeps faithfully traditions : a priest in Kangos explains (in latin) that Laps" attend the mass but keep a pagan heart". Thus, Regnard was fascinated to observe a sheman using magic, sorcery and drums to communicate with supranatural forces : "When a Lapp is facing death, a sheman comes at his bedside beating drums and playing tricks with a firm belief that the living and the departed are two halves of the same family"…

 Health conditions in Lapland, 1681

 Among the main items presented by Regnard : hygiene, nutrition, longevity, diseases, sexuality, alcoholism and lapp pharmacopoea


On newborn care : Lapps give to newborn infants a very special intensive care: rubbing the baby with snow until he gets short of breath, then dipping him in hot wate. Comments Regnard : "Just fair training against cold"

On children : "children less than one year of âge get a bath three times a day, older children, to Regnard's amazement, three times a week "

On adults : near every house stands a wooden shack called "Basses-touches"[19], there are kept stones heated by a great fire. When water is thrown upon, "temperature gets so high in the shack that all attendants can take off their clothes" . Regnard notes with great surprise a "total mixity between boys and girls, mothers and sons, brothers and sisters" . Yet even more surprising, young girls are coming, armed with birch stalks, hitting everyone nearby, and, finally, the whole party rushing outside to get a swim in ice cold water". Comments from Regnard : "I should never have thought that Bothnians could follow Roman emperors in this search for luxury and pleasure"…


Salmon, pikes and sichs[20] are on menu every day : simply delicious but why, ask Regnard, "eat in place of bread a mixture of fishbones crushed with tree bark : how can people enjoying luxury baths as Roman Emperors did, ignore all about bread ?".

About meat and dairy products : "Rein meat is highly nutritive with many choice morsels as tongue and bone marrow". Regnard was amazed to experience sausages "à la laponne" : reindeer vesical bladders filled with blood, left freezing outdoor and served sliced with fish …" . Rein milk blended with water is the favourite beverage of the Lapps and rein cheese, admits Regnard is " fat and highly nutritive but insipid and stinking"

Now about vegetables and fruits : "Lapps are especially fond of the most tender bark of pine trees. They let it dry under the sun then keep it buried underground in large baskets ". Same thing for the whitish lichen of mount Sellices only nutrition of some people during summers".

Finally, Regnard, to his dismail, had to taste a strange marmelade : "they pick up black berries called crokberg, and mix it crushed with… fish eggs[21]…Regnard's sober comment : "I was near to collapse "…


Regnard has nothing but praise for the Lapp healthy way of life, "Lapps live 100 yrs or more : some lived up to 150 yrs !". "Old age disabilities are different from France : when a Lapp gets old he only looses some part of his forces". "It is not easy here to differentiate the old from the young : grey hair is rarely seen, most of Lapps being redheads"

As supreme argument : "you never find six children families around here"… Longevity is so high that Lapp families need not have plenty of children as in France


From their unique way of life (in spite of a poor nutrition…) Lapps "live in a perfect state of health". As expressed by Molière : "No physicians, no diseases[22]"

However, a frequent handicap among Lapps, especially aging Lapps, is eye troubles : "Their eyes naturally fragile are deteriorated by the sun glare reflected on snow and the smoke from fires burning night and day in any Lapp house"


Engagements last a very long time in order to get from the future husband as many presents as possible but what came as a shock for Regnard was to learn that in Lapland "neither dowry nor virginity are seriously discussed".

Other startling observation : "young married couple spend their wedding night in family hut", " bridegroom not only going to bed with his bride but all her relatives".

Sexual life here is exactly what can be expected from a wandering folk : "freedom for sex without any jealousy nor cheating …!". No surprise, then, that foreigners can be expected to give homage to any girl coming to them. Another privilege, no lesser, for foreigners is to share the same bed than their host…and his wife or daughters…!

Regnard's conclusions : "enclosed in stones, is a fire ony disclosed by contact with iron, and, from the same way, is kept inside men and women, a principle of life only disclosed in sexual union". Regnard could not suspect he was launching a myth promised to a bright future[23] : "the Noble Savage"…


Quote from Regnard : "alcohol is always present on festive days". Thus, during feasts : "As meal starter, we got beer, "akvavit"[24] and another liquor called "calchat" ("kall skott" ?), mixture of beer, wine and sugar, the most vicious drinks that ever entered into human body".

Moreover, alcohol holds in Lapland a major role in social life : "The more in love is a man, the largest are brandevin rounds", "There is no wedding without "eau-de-vie"[25] and tobacco…", "wedding "soubbouvin" ("sup vin"?) should be rather called … "love drink". There is a long development on funerals showing all attendants drinking glassful "pallgavin" ("lyckliga vin"?) to honour the dead, now gone away to heaven.

Lapp Pharmacopoea

Among medicinal plants: a moss called "jeest"("Jereh"?) and a plant called Angelica ("fedna"), also, fir gum-resin used as ointment plaster.

Rein milk and cheese are basic drugs in Lapp pharmacopoea : rein cheese is a "divine unguent" against frostbites and "oil" obtained by driving a red hot iron into rein cheese gives highly "succesful cure in all sorts of internal or external diseases, including chest illnesses, persistant coughs and all contusions"

Remain all sorts of "kill-or-cure" remedies as "wolf bile mixed with "brandevin" and gun powder" and "whale oil given after delivery, the best of all tonic remedies".

The most impressive part of Lapp Pharmacopoea is cauterization : wounds are treated with red-hot charcoal in local application, lasting as long as the patient can endure, "thus consuming all impurities". From Regnard's previous experience in Orient, "there is no better medicine"… !

 A problem in "Lappologia" : Regnard vs Scheffer

 First, the facts : in 1671 Johannes G. Scheffer, native of Strasburg and Professor in Rhetoric and Philology at Uppsala University was commissioned by Riksmarskalk Magnus G. de la Gardie to write a "realistic account of Laplander's customs". Scheffer had never been to Lapland and he requested several priests of the northern districts to send him reports on their parishioners. Two years later, in 1673, was published in Francfort "Lapponia, id est religions Lapponum et gentils nova et verissima descriptio" followed, next year, by an english edition from Oxford ("The History of Lapland") and, in 1678 a Paris edition : "Histoire de Laponie, sa description, l'origine, les moeurs, la manière de vivre de ses habitants"

There is clear evidence that Regnard’s "Voyage de Laponie" was greatly dependent upon Johannes Scheffer’s text : many details given on Lapland's daily life in the Voyage are direct quotes from Laponia. However, it is obvious that Regnard and Schefffer had very different ways to explore Lapland :

Regnard brought back an eye-witness report, there is no question about that, bringing first hand informations but, also, with great literary appeal, a fascinating narrative of his personal adventures conveying in some passages a truly mythic dimension.

Scheffer's Laponia can be seen as a scientific report on Lapland, based on raw facts[26], centered on religion, folk beliefs and practices but …Scheffer had never set foot in Lapland...

 Back to Paris


On December 3, 1683, Regnard is back in Paris. Now he had to face the same fate than the "Man of a Million Lies"[27] : how to make believe the unbelievable ?

The strange world discovered by Regnard was so far out from France of that time that nobody would believe in the inconvenient truth of the "Journal de Voyage en Laponie". Lapland was doomed to remain the mysterious and disturbing "Terra incognita", which could have been given, as in old medieval maps, the strange name of "Here be dragons" …

Thus, 50 years of silence : Regnard, as long as he lived, refused to release any travel notes and his "Journey in Laponia" was only published in 1731, 20 years after his death

However, as soon as he was in France, Regnard “the Wanderer” decided, without any further mention of his travels, to live a new life ("We only live twice" could have been his motto… ) and become… careerist.

At age 30 years, he becomes success author whose plays are performed in the most famous theaters in Paris, Comédie Italienne and Comédie Française and climbs up swiftly all social scales. In 1708, his major play, "The sole legatee, gets Regnard sacred by Voltaire successor of Molière, in 1682 : Regnard is enobled Conseiller trésorier de France, then, in 1700, " Bailli d'épée, Lieutenant des eaux et forêts et des chasses".

In 1701 Regnard reaches the top of social ladder when he acquires the Castle of Dourdan, near Paris, becoming thus Seigneur of Château Grillon but, on September 4, 1709, he dies suddenly, as some columnists suggested, from indigestion.

Meanwhile, he had obtained a solid reputation of hedonist close to libertine, ardent amateur of good food, music, theatre and … actresses. His solution for problems of life was to seek only pleasure :

Do what you want, live with no sorrows

Never refuse anything, here is my system

This will be my life until the end. [28]


 Regnard, "the first tourist in Lapland" brought back to posterity an invaluable document on Scandinavia of the early times : he should stand in the Hall of Fame of Northern Travellers, well ahead all other Lapland visitors as Ehrenmalm[29] Leem[30], Maupertuis[31] and Mme d'Aunet[32] who came here so long time after him.

As a tribute to the Lapp country stands the "Matavara Stele" left by Regnard : "We travelled seven or eight leagues along the lake [Torneträsk] to a mountain higher than other mountains. Here we concluded our northward journey and raised the tent poles. We spent four hours climbing the mountain by a route that no mortal had ever set foot on. When we were up we could Lapland in the west and Arctic Ocean as far as North Cape. This, gentlemen, can be called touching the Earth’s axis and being at the end of the world. This was the right place to leave the inscription mentioned earlier, which I think will never be read by anyone, except wild bears ":

 "France gave us birth; we saw Africa and drank water of Gange;

 We visited every country in Europe :

 After so many adventures, here we stand, arrived to the limits of Earth"[33]

(de Fercourt, de Corberon, Regnard, Anno 1681, 22 August.

  A benchmark in Lapland History still hidden somewhere in Torneträsk ?


 . Regnard Jean François, Voyages de Flandres, Hollande, Suède, Danemark, Laponie, Pologne et Allemague. Voyages de Normandie et de Chaumont (posthume 1731), [in] Les Oeuvres de M. Regnard, Paris, Vve de P. Ribou, 1731, 5 vol., in-12, vol. I et II. (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

. Regnard Jean François, La Provençale, [in] Les Oeuvres de M. Regnard, Paris, Vve de P. Ribou, 1731, 5 vol., in-12, vol. I et II.( vol. I.)

. Scheffer Johann G., Lapponia, id est religions Lapponum et gentils nova et verissima descriptio, Francfort, 1673.

. Scheffer Johann G., Histoire de Laponie, sa description, l'origine, les moeurs, la manière de vivre de ses habitants, traduite du latin par le Père Augustin Lubin, géographe ordinaire de S.M., Paris, Veuve Olivier de Varennes, 1678.

. Aunet d', Voyage d'une femme au Spitzberg,1839. Paris Ed. Payot (coll. Petite bibliothèques Payot / Voyageurs, n° 149), 1995

. Bertrand D. L'ironie libertine dans les Voyages de Jean-François Regnard », [in] Le Rire des Voyageurs (XVIe-XVIIe siècles), Paris : Dominique Bertrand éd.

. du Chaillu P. B., Land of the Midnight Sun, London, 1881.

. Ehrenmalm, Arwid. Resa igenom Wäster-Norrland til Åsehle lappmark, anstäld uti julii månad 1741. Sthlm, Kongl. boktryckeriet, hos P. Momma, 1743

. Emerson-Bremer Svend, Rejse i Danmark aar 1681, København, Jacob Lund, 1909

. Gourmont de, Rémy, : Mœurs et coutumes et légendes de la Laponie norvégienne, Ed Firmin-Didot, Paris, 1890

. Grillo A. Au pays des vendeurs de vent. Voyages et voyageurs en Laponie et Finlande du XV au XIX siècle: l'invention du récit de voyage en terres boréales, Thèse Université Paris IV, 2005.

. Grillo A., Léonie d'Aunet, Oltre Capo Nord. Viaggio di una donna allo Spitzberg, Roma, Ed. Voland, 2006

. Hall G. Travel and literature : Observation and imagination in French seventeenth-century, Journal of European Studies, 14; 117, 1984.

. Holloway Alan Ivvár, The Decline of the Sámi People’s Indigenous Religion, (Internet site :

. Kraemer, Irène, Les femmes dans le théâtre comique de Jean-François Regnard, Thèse de 3ème cycle de Littérature française, Université Paris 3, 1985.

. La Motraye, Aubry de, Voyage en Europe, Asie et Afrique, La Haye, Johnson et J. von Duren, 1727

. Leem, Knud, Beskrivelse over Finmarkens lapper, deres tungemaal, levemaade og forrige afgudsdyrkelse, Köpenhamn, 1767

. Marmier X., Lettres sur le Nord. Danemark, Suède, Norvège, Laponie et Spitzberg. Souvenirs de voyage, Paris, Hachette, 1856

. Maupertuis, Pierre Louis Moreau de, Relations d'un voyage en laponie. Voyage au cercle polaire pour determiner la figure de la terre, Lyon, 1768

. Maury, Lucien, A la recherche de J.F. Regnard en Laponie, Paris ; 1930

. Nielsen Y., Det Norske geogr. Selskabs Aarbog, 1891

. Passarge S., Fahrten in Schweden, besonders in Nordschweden und Lapland, Berlin, 1897

. Pinkerton, John. A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages and Travels in All Parts of the World, London, Philadelphia Kimber and Conrad, 1810-12

. Rabot C., "La Laponie suedoise d'apres les recentes explorations de MM. Svenonius et Hamberg," La Geographie, Soc. Geog. de Paris VII., 1903

. Rae E., Land of the North Wind, London, 1875.

. Reusch H. H., Folk og natur i Finmarken, 1895,

. Rydving, Håkan, The End of Drum-Time: Religious Change among the Lule Saami, 1670s-1740s, Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1993.

. Seminario Il viaggio in Finlandia e Lapponia nei secoli XVII, XVIII e XIX, Facoltà di Lingue et Letterature Straniere dell’Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2004

. Sheldon F., Jean-François Regnard, The Atlantic monthly, Volume 15, Issue 92, 710:711, June 1865

. Taylor B., Northern Travel, London, 1858,

. Tromholt S., Under the Rays of the Aurora Borealis, London, 1885

. von Diiben, Om Lapland och Lapparne, Stockholm, 1873


 Theater plays at the Comédie-Italienne:

 Le Divorce (1688)

 La Descente de Mezzetin aux Enfers (1689)

 Arlequin, homme à bonne fortune

 La Critique de l'Homme à bonne fortune

 Les Filles errantes ou les intrigues des hôtelleries (1690)

 La Coquette ou l'académie des dames (1691)

 La Naissance d'Amadis (1694).

Theater plays at the Comédie-Française:

 La Sérénade (1694)

 Le Bourgeois de Falaise

 Le Joueur (1696)

 Le Distrait (1697)

 Le Carnaval de Venise (1699 comédie-ballet mus. de Campra)

 Démocrite (1700)

 Le Retour imprévu (1700)

 Les Folies amoureuses (1704)

 Les Ménechmes (1705)

 Le Légataire universel

 La Critique du Légataire (1708).

In collaboration with Dufresny:

 Les Chinois (1692)

 La Baguette de Vulcain (1693)

 Attendez-moi sous l'orme (1694 attribution contestée)

 La Foire Saint-Germain (1695)

 La Suite de La Foire Saint-Germain (1696).


[1] See later the list of Regnard's theatre plays.

[2] Jean François Regnard, La Provençale, [in] Les Oeuvres de M. Regnard, Paris, Vve de P. Ribou, 1731, 5 vol., in-12, vol. I et II.( vol. I.)

[3] Regnard is said to have always been a dedicated gourmet and a skilled cook…

[4] Jean François Regnard, Voyages de Flandres, Hollande, Suède, Danemark, Laponie, Pologne et Allemague. Voyages de Normandie et de Chaumont (posthume 1731), [in] Les Oeuvres de M. Regnard, Paris, Vve de P. Ribou, 1731, 5 vol., in-12, vol. I et II. (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France.

[5] De Fercourt, a gentleman from Picardy, travel companion for Regnard in Scandinavia

[6] Nicolas-Augustin de Corberon (1653-1729), "Avocat à la grand-chambre du Parlement de Paris" and "Substitut du procureur général au Grand Conseil" shared with Regnard, an ardent passion for travels : he is said to have travelled to India.

[7] " easy virtue"…

[8] There is no other language more suitable for begging than danish, Danes seem always crying ("Il n'y a pas de langue plus propre au monde pour demander l'aumône que la danoise : il semble toujours qu'ils pleurent…")

[9] Tycho Brahe's globe was destroyed half a century later during the 1728 catastrophic fire in Copenhagen : the globe was made of brass and melted …

[10] Rudersdal ?

[11] A log house made of interlaced balks

[12] Olof Rudbeck (Olaus Rudbeckius) (1630-1702), renowned scientist from Upsala was, among many other studies, a pioneer in the study of lymphatic vessels.

[13] .See : Regnard Jean François, Voyages de Flandres, Hollande, Suède, Danemark, Laponie, Pologne et Allemague. Voyages de Normandie et de Chaumont (posthume 1731), [in] Les Oeuvres de M. Regnard, Paris, Vve de P. Ribou, 1731, 5 vol., in-12, vol. I et II. (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

[14] " Tranquilles et sombres forêts Où le Soleil ne luit jamais, Qu'au travers de mille feüillages, Que vous avez pour moi d'attraits…"

[15] Further conclusions from Regnard : "Here is, Monsieur, a description of this little animal called Lapp : one could say that there is no other animal, except monkey, with a closer resemblance to human beings"

[16] About 1,50 m., a "cubit" is the english version of a "coudée", around 18 inches = 45,72cm

[17] and …their tax system set in Lapland by Swedish authorities...

[18] aune was French equivalent of "ell" : 45 inches and 1,143 m


[19] Understand "bastu"...One should also be aware that "basses touches" has, in French, the meaning of "low hit"…

[20] Quite certainly, "sichs" stands for "Sills"

[21] Without any doubt, kaviar...

[22] Cf. Molière : L'Amour médecin 1665 - Acte 2 : "Est-ce que les médecins font mourir? "

[23] See Jean-Jacques Rousseau :"Nature made man happy and good but society depraves him and makes him miserable " ("La nature a fait l'homme heureux et bon, mais la société le déprave et le rend misérable" (in Rousseau juge de Jean-Jacques)(1772-1776)

[24] See following note.

[25] There is no need to stress that "eau de vie", originally "aqua vitae", was doomed to become "alvavit"..

[26] An objective confrontation shows that many more details are given by Scheffer on Laplanders state of health ragarding, for example, "pleuresies", "lung inflammations", "stitches in the back", "dizziness in the head" and "small pox"...

[27] Marco Polo(1254-1324), the "Man of a Million Lies", had to face for 20 yrs the scepticism of his comptariots towards the reality of the Far East world.

[28] "Faire tout ce qu'on veut, vivre exempt de chagrin, Ne se rien refuser, Voici tout mon système, Et de mes jours ainsi j'attraperai la fin".

[29] Arwid Ehrenmalm : Travels into western Nordland (1741),

[30] Knud Leem : Beskrivelse over Finmarkens Lapper (1767)

[31] Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis : Voyage au cercle polaire (1768),

[32] Mme d'Aunet : Voyage d'une femme au Spitzberg (1839)

[33] Gallia nos genuit ; vidit nos Africa ; Gangem, Hausimus, Europemque ocultis listravimus omnem ; Casibus et variis acti terraque marique, Sistimus hic tandem nobis ubi defuit orbis

Date de dernière mise à jour : 29/07/2013

Créer un site gratuit avec e-monsite - Signaler un contenu illicite sur ce site