SYRIAN EMPERORS OF ROME
A. Fabre May 22, 2002
History of the Syrian emperors has a date, a place and a family
END OF SECOND, EARLY THIRD CENTURIES
before, this is the golden age of Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius
after this is the regime of coup d'permanent state that will end with the creation of the Tetrarchy and the Eastern Empire
during this time
210 in the East end of the Parthian dynasty of Sassanid Persia
222: China, disappearance of the Han Empire: Three Kingdoms
220: In Ethiopia, founded the kingdom in Axum
place: Emese (Homs)
After the Hellenistic period Seleucide empire, Pompey in 64 AJC, made Antioch (Antakya, Turkey today) the capital of Roman Syria and even, on occasion, when the emperor lived there, the Roman Empire.
EMESA WHERE THE ACTION IS...
Emesa, near the desert, was an important step on the route from Antioch to Palmyra, which left the Silk Road in the direction of Persia, India, and China. The rural population was Arab, but the inhabitants of the city, especially the imperial administrators, local aristocracy, merchants and artisans were most of the Greek
As a religious center, Emesa was an important part:
the temple of the sun god El-aiagabal as the temples of Heliopolis (Baalbek) and Hierapolis (Membij) was famous throughout Syria.
the ruling family, Samsigeramides had kept despite the annexation, all his wealth and prestige. Religious function as well as policy, was a dynasty sacerdocale
we see the surprising fate of one of their descendants, Julius Bassianus, high priest of Emese.
THE SEVERAN DYNASTY
The imperial dynasty Severe lasted more than 40 years (193-235).
old family with many writers, poets and rhetoricians
three main groups interest us here:
Septimius Severus and his son, Caracalla and Geta
the wives and mothers of the Syrian dynasty
Syrian emperors, two cousins: Elagabalus and Alexander
SEPTIME SEVERE (194) (Leptis Magna, Tunisia: 146 Eburacum (York): 211): Dallas in Rome…
Septimius Severus was an absolute monarch, strategist outstanding and ambitious unscrupulous
He had military career in the East in a civil war against the prefect of Syria, Pescennius Nigerum then against the Parthians. Commander of the Fourth Roman legion in Antioch, he meets Julia Domna, daughter of the priest-to Emese, Bassianus and going to marry.
He died in 211 in York leaving two son who will debvenir both emperors
CARACALLA AND GETA: A SHAKESPIRIEN DRAMA?
CARACALLA (211) (188 Lyon - Carrhae, Harran 2l7) and GETA
the highlight of his reign was the promulgation of the edict which granted the Roman citizenship to all free men of the Empire
in 212, he murdered his brother and co-emprereur Geta but he must leave Rome where Geta was very popular: it will establish Antioch in Syria.
Leaving his mother, Empress Dowager Domna, head of the Empire, he led the war against the Parthians in the back country and Syria will perish in turn violent death, murdered by Haran pretorien Prefect, Macrinus
Empresses SYRIAN: ANCESTORS OF MEDICI?
Julius Bassianus, the high priest of Homs had two daughters Domna and Maesa
A married Septimius Severus, when he was only Libyan commander of a Roman legion stationed near Emesa. They had two son, Caracalla and Geta, emperors destiny, we have seen tragic.
Geta was the favorite of his mother, Caracalla was assassinated in front of his mother, the Roman historian Dio shows us Geta crying and begging "mummy, mummy, help me." ..
when Caracalla, his eldest son, was murdered in turn, Domna sinks into depression and soon to die (some speak of a breast tumor?)
Supreme derision: she had asked to be enterree with Geta but his sister Maesa has exhumed his body and reunite the bones to those of Caracalla.
Domna's sister, married an imperial magistrate Syrian Alexianus Julius Avitus, and had two daughters, and Soaemias Mamaea, which will become, respectively, mothers Varius (Heliogabalus) and Alexianus (Alexander Severus). She was also good at politics and "Florentine combinazione" of sorts that her sister
How to get rid of an obstacle on the way to the throne?
Maesa, widowed and head of family, seeks to eliminate Macrinus, who succeeded his nephew Caracalla and was banished to Emesa with his grand-son and mother.
tactics Maesa was simple but effective: it lived Emese, surrounded by faithful servants, and had free access to the temple treasury, while Macrinus, however, was, in the words of the military, too good manager not to say stingy
In May 218, Macrinus is executed in Chalcedon and Varius (Heliogabalus) became the first Syrian emperor after me scholarly maneuvers his grandmother
How to Become Severe when it is not really?
Varius and Alexianus were the only male members of the dynasty were but by their great aunt, Domna.
After the death of his two sons-Maesa, with the help of his daughters, spreading the rumor that her young son were in fact illegitimate children born of Caracalla
in truth, the reputation Soaemia gave some bases these assertions ...
How to replace a small son by another?
On the death of Heliogabalus, killed with his mother 222, the rumor spread that the coup was mounted by the grandmother who wanted at all costs to get the other little son, Alexander, on the throne.
ELAGABALE AND ALEXANDRE SEVERE: THE TERRIBLE COUSINS OF HOMS
Towards the end of the first millennium of Rome (218-235), two young Syrian of a family arrive in Rome: they will become both emperors. Children, they were very close to each other, their mothers were able to make mortal enemies.
Elagabalus (Heliogabal) (218) Varius Avitus Bassianus (Emese 204 - 222 Rome)
who was really Heliogabal?Bassianus Or Varius Elagabalus?
the name chosen by posterity, Elaiagabal (El Gelba) evokes the worship of Baal solar Emese says Elagabalus in Latin, Greek or Heliogabalus, "helios," sun.
the proposed model was Varius Official Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Emperor philosopher, author of Meditations was doubly fraudulent adoption, implementation of Maesa, but a reference to the annals severe.
Septimius Severus, in fact, took the surprising decision to adopt posthumously Marcus Aurelius as his father, brother and making the Emperor Commodus. In this way, the son of Septimius, Caracalla, was able to receive the name of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.
Varius variable In the words of the time, nomvéritable Heliogabalus, "Varius" was entirely justified:
rebellious but true to its roots but debauched mystic
A sculpture of the Capitoline Museum, better than coins, helps to understand the charm of this insolent ephebe
Today we would call charisma to the dancer whose life was a permanent theatrical representation ...
Vaius the "provo"
In the first year of his reign, at the age of 14 years, during the stay in Nicomedia (Izmit, Sea of Marmara) of the imperial family en route to Rome, Heliogabale proves gifted to the scandal:
He began by refusing to wear a toga, wool gave him too itchy, or armor, it was too heavy and would not tolerate the silk to the touch of her skin.
He announced plans to enter Rome in long dress wearing a tiara covered in jewels and wearing the foot of sabdales dancer.
The day his mother's lover, Gannys, reproach him for his conduct, he replied, slapping him. Gannys out his sword, Varius apppelle with and killed by soldiers.
Heliogabalus seems to have always had a keen sense of theater organizing increasingly amazing shows:
Free weddings men and women followed by union public
meal "coordinated" with dishes of the same color (white, black, or purple)
surreal banquets for guests bald hernieux or blind prostitutes
The pleasure of the Emperor have always been scandaliset Roman society. He brings all the energy of his youth, the devastating acidity of humor and a morbid taste for "practical jokes" going sometimes to sadism:
older senators forced to dress in "drag queens" wearing fishnets and dancing with him or his acolytes troop ...
cowardly lions on death or annoying drunk guests
The great-grand-son of the priest of Emese had another side of his personality, and he did not hide the taste of religion:
As emperor, with the burden of Pontifex Maximus, the supreme Pontiffe official Roman cult, he wanted to, by all means, impose Elaiagabal Romans worship the god of Emesa sun entering the Roman Pantheon, a higher rank than that of Jupiter or Neptune ..
There is little information about the rites of the goddess' Atagatis or Cybele Hierapolis in Phrygia (Asia Minor), but we know nothing Eliagabal dedicated to religious ceremonies can be sacrifices humans, castration or prostitution.
The main object of worship was the sacred stone, large black stone, a meteorite that Pliny ensures appeared on coins as a hive or a phallus. After the death of Heliogabalus, the sacred stone back to Syria, where its trace is lost. It would be interesting to find out what happened to this object yet indestructible ...
the tragic death of an artist
The popularity of Heliiogabale was comparable to that of our rock stars
However, the strange behavior of the emperor aroused, increasingly, mistrust and hostility in Roman high society, yet jaded.
Everything ends in 222, when Elagabalus and his mother were murdered Soaemias can be at the instigation of his grandmother Maesa who wanted to get Alexander on the throne.
ALEXANDRE SEVERE (222) (Arca Caesarea, Phoenicia 205 - Germany 235)
Alexander's reign lasted three times longer than that of Heliogabalus, and in a very different style: can be opourra do we observe that it was certainly more interesting dinner Elagabalus with Alexander?
• Alexander was a young man (17 years!) Docile after the death of the grandmother, Maesa, power passed into the hands of his mother, who had dismissed the Mamaea wife Orbiana,
• the most necessary measures have been initiated with care: lower taxes, reassessment monnétaire, lending policy moderate interest. At the same time behaved military operations against the Persians and the Germans. improvement of living conditions of military
• However, the army remained hostile to Alexander and his organization assassinnat and his mother, Mamaea, during a campaign in Germany.
Thus, the "enfant terrible" any objection had much in common:
domineering mothers who have brought up by a coup on the throne while they were still teenagers
all died young, Varius at 17 Alexianus 30 years, murdered by their soldiers.
their mothers have died with them and in the same way
the fate of Homs
• Emese will lose political power, except for a brief period when Uranius Antoninus wanted to take power at the time of the Roman anarchy.
We should also mention Philip the Arab (born Trachonitide, Saudi (beyond the Jordan, southern Damascus) in 204 - died in Verona 249) who had the honor to celebrate in honor of the 1000th person anniversary of the founding of Rome.
crossroads of major trade routes, Homs (Emesa) has remained a prosperous city for several centuries.
the reign of the Syrian emperors
• Certainly, the time of the Syrian emperors is the kick-permanent state.
• However, this is for a period Syria commercial opulence, asset planning and development of agriculture
• reign lasted less than a half-century but it was the last of the great eras of Ancient Rome before the great schism of Byzantium.
the march of civilizations
epicenter in East Mediterranean civilization
Eastern civilizations journey from East to West, the Route du Soleil
East and Rome: Europe and the United States?
Date de dernière mise à jour : 30/07/2013